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Sensitivity—Detection of stimuli
Type of Receptor Examples of Stimuli:
Chemoreceptors—Oxygen, pH, various organic molecules such as glucose
Mechanoreceptors—Pressure (baroreceptors), cell stretch (osmoreceptors), vibration, acceleration, sound
Photoreceptors—Photons of light
Thermoreceptors—Varying degrees of heat
Which sense makes use of mitral cells? Olfactory cells? Gustatory cells? Photoreceptors? Bipolar Cells? Organ of Corti cells?
Organ of Corti cells—auditory
Without adding sulfur to natural gas, the human cannot detect the presence of natural gas. Why?
Natural gas is an efficient, safe, colorless and odorless gas.
Some people may not be able to smell the odor because they have a diminished sense of smell, or are experiencing olfactory fatigue.
Natural gas and sulfur combined smell like rotten eggs
Why and how are metabotropic sense receptors different from ionotropic sense receptors?
Metabotropic sense receptors—acts through a 2nd messenger system; some regulate the opening or closing of ion channels
Inotropic sense receptors—allow different kinds of ions to travel in and out of the cell
Why is turbulent air flow in the nasal vestibule important to smell sense?
Because the cilia are embedded in layers of mucus and odorant molecules must first dissolve in and penetrate the mucus before they can bind to an odorant receptor protein. Odoratn receptos are sensitive.
How does the arrangement of gustatory hair cells affect taste sensation?
Every taste bud is made up of basal and supporting cells that help maintain about 50 gustatory receptor cells—stimulated by the chemical makeup of solutions. When a stimulus activates a gustatory cell, the receptor will synapse with neurons and send an electrical impulse to the gustatory region of the cerebral cortex. The brain interprets the sensation as taste.
Which CNS structure primarily is a relay station of sensory information to both conscious and subconscious CNS?
What can lateral inhibition achieve?
How much of the visceral information is relayed through the vagus nerve?
contains about 75% of all parasympathetic fibers—it carries sensory info from internal organs to the brain and parasympathetic output from the brain to organs
Where does each sense labeled line begin and end?
How do the ganglion cells in the visual labeled line improve acuity?
They transmit image-forming and non-image forming visual information from the retina in the form of action potential to several regions in the thalamus, hypothalamus, and mesencephalon, or midbrain.
How can the right and left visual cortexes receive information from both monocular and binocular visual fields?
Lateralization—left brain-right brain dominance:
Right visual cortex receives input from the left visual field
Left visual cortex receives its input from the right visual field
Which sense is associated with the individual, sensory cranial nerves?
How can one sensation influence the relay of another sensation (hint: gated control)?
Ab fibers carrying sensory information about mechanical stimuli help block pain transmission
Can you sequentially order the events of each special sense?
Why is it important that visceral senses have cranial nerve labeled lines?
To preserves the topographical organization of receptors on the skin, eye, or other regions in the processing centers of the brain.
At what point along the relay of somatic sense labeled lines, which are originating from a common body region, will the discrete sense become separated so as to be routed to the correct interpretive CNS region? Why is this necessary?
so that sensations from the left side of the body are processed in the right hemisphere
Why is lateral inhibition occurring at second order neurons?
Can you Locate and Name ALL CNS anatomy?
Which senses are conscious and which are subconscious?
Conscious: taste, auditory, vision, smell, equilibrium
Subconscious: muscle length and tension, proprioception
Where does each special sense relayed to?
Which region is for receptive language?
The integration of spoken language in the human brain involves two regions in the cerebral cortex
in the temporal lobe
Which CNS regions process sensory information and what specific sense does each deal with?
Pons processes sensory info
Chemoreceptors—smell and taste
Where is the behavioral brain? Homeostatic brain? Logical brain? Representational brain?
Where would simple reflex arcs occur? Complex reflex arcs?
Logical—hippocampus (limbic system)
Representational—amygdala and hippocampus (limbic system)
Simple reflex arc—parasympathetic
Complex reflex arc—autonomic
How is the somatic sensory cortex arranged? Why is this so?
In the parietal lobe is the termination point pathway from the skin, musculoskeletal system, and viscera.
It carries info about touch, temp, pain, itch, and body position.
Perception is the brain’s interpretation of sensory information transmitted along pathways. Our perception can be magnified by past experiences or suppressed in emergencies when survival depends on ignoring injury.
Where does the CNS use sensory information for representational awareness? categorical awareness?
Sensory info from the spinal cord projects to the thalamus, then onto sensory areas of the cerebral cortex
How do photoreceptors activate and relay to the visual cortex?
Transduce light energy into an electrical signal that passes to the visual cortex for processing
What influences the role of the cerebellum?
What is gained by the sharing of sensory information between asymmetrical cortexes?
How is the thickness of the basilar membrane in the organ of corti assisting with pitch interpretation?
The location of active hair cells creates a code that the brain translates as information about the pitch of sound
How is the topography of the tongue important to taste perception?
What is generally categorized as “taste” is basically a bundle of different sensations: it is not only the qualities of taste perceived by the tongue, but also the smell, texture and temperature of a meal that are important.
How are association areas beneficial to perceptual ability?
Perception is the brain’s interpretation of sensory stimuli. Assocation areas integrate sensory info into perception
Our CNS has the ability to perceive a sensation when there is no stimuli present, how is this possible?
Why are there only three semicircular canals in the vestibular complex?
Where is temperature monitored? Blood Pressure? Proprioreception?
Proprioreceptors—muscles, joints, tendons (limbs)
What makes the special senses so special?
They collect and transmit external sensations from the environment to the brain
For what is proprioreception important?
It gives one a sense of self, aides in self-regulation and promotes success in both fine motor and gross motor activities.
Can you choose a sense and then give its purpose?
Eyes—sight, judge depth, interpret new information, and identify color (the wavelengths of light that reflect off surfaces).
Noses are used to smell scents. They get a sense for what particles are traveling through the air, which can help us identify if dangerous chemicals are nearby. Smell also has the strongest connection to memory; a familiar smell can remind us of things long forgotten.
Ears allow us to hear sound - to detect vibrations in the air particles around us. But the inner ear also helps us maintain balance and regulate sinus pressure. This is especially useful when you change altitude (like, for example, when you are flying in an airplane).
Tongues are used to taste foods, allowing us to figure out if something is going to be useful to our bodies or poisonous. They also allow us to sense hot and cold in food and liquids.
Particularly with special senses, what type of uses does the CNS make of EACH sense?
Particularly with Auditory and Visual senses, the labeled lines conclude from each sense organ in both right and left cerebral hemispheres. Why is this important to us?
Labeled line coding—the association of a receptor with a specific sensation
It is important because it tells the brain where a stimulus is
Each sense has receptors; The brain has specialized areas for different functions; called localization of function. Each sense has its specialized area, which when activated produces the experience associated with that sense.
Why are some senses adapting quickly (Phasic) and others are less likely to adapt (Tonic)?
Phasic—rapidly adapting receptors that are attuned to changing conditions
Tonic—are slowly adapting receptors that fire rapidly when first activated, then slow and maintain their firing as long as the stimulus is present
With every sensory stimulus of all afferent divisions being an EPSP then how is it possible that our CNS can choose between conscious perceptions of each experience? Why is this important (hint you’re using it now to answer this!)?
Many Musicians close their eyes when they make music. Is this just false stage acting or can this be physiologically explained as some sort of benefit?
Playing sports, performing in theater, playing music or studying physiology all have a common element for success. Can you describe that common element and all the integrated CNS physiology that can improve one’s success?
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