refers to a significant disruption in one's state of consciousness, memory, sense of identity, or any combo of the 3 when caused by psych not biological factors -associated w/ trauma -represents a way that the mind protects itself from painful experiences -can be adaptive
a form of induced dissociation, has been found to be effective in treating some anxiety disorders and helping ppl to stop smoking
To define one as having a dissociative disorder depends on...
1. severity of dissociation 2. interference w/ overall functioning
How can dissociation be adaptive?
Ex: person who is scared of flying begins every flight by transporting his mind to a safe/familiar place. Ex: allows ppl to perform heroic feats in situations that would normally cause fear/dread
-distressed/impaired by persistent feelings of detachment/unreality -feel disconnected from own mental processes "feel like robots", or "living in a movie" -people feel emotionally detached/numbed
Diagnostic Criteria for Depersonalization Disorder
-Persistent/recurrent experiences of feeling detached from one's body or mind (watching one's self from outside) -During period, person is not psychotic, he/she continues to know what is real and what's not. -Experience causes distress in functioning
-forget basic info about their identity/recent past, usually following trauma
Loss of memory for all of the events that occurred w/in a specific period of time. Ex: having amnesia for all events that happened on same day she witnessed a gruesome car accident
Loss of memory for some, but not all, of the events from a specific period of time. Ex: someone who has forgotten many episodes from a recent combat experience
Refers to experience of forgetting everything about one's personal identity - no knowledge of name, background, family history -Nonpersonal aspects of memory remain intact like current events
Refers to amnesia that begins at a specific time and continues through to the present Ex: Man who can't remember anything that has occurred since learning of the accidental death of his spouse a week ago.
Refers to loss of memory for a certain category of information Ex: memories related to a particular person
Diagnostic Criteria for Dissociative Amnesia
-1 or more episodes of the inability to recall important personal info, usually about trauma or stress -forgotten info is too extensive to be accounted for by ordinary forgetting -forgetting causes distress/impairment in functioning
What are common experiences from dissociative amnesia?
-Blackouts or "time loss" -Reports of disremembered behavior -Appearance of unexplained possessions -Perplexing changes in relationships -Fragmentary recall of life history -Brief, trance-like amnesia episodes ("microamnesias")
Sudden and unexpected travel away from home accompanied by forgetting of one's past and personal identity -only lasts a few days or hours -more common in ppl w/ past incidents of amnesia -more likely to occur in depressed people
Diagnostic Criteria for Dissociative Fugue
-Sudden, unexpected travel away from home/work w/ inability to recall past -Confusion a/b personal identity or assumption of complete/partial new identity -Symptoms cause distress/impairment in functioning
Dissociative Identity Disorder
-most severe, fascinating, controversial -maintains original identity, but has other identities that replace original personality -often confused w/ schizophrenia -typical; 2-4 personalities -more than 25 in rare cases -diametrically opposed pairs are common -host/persecutory/protector -host/protector can describe other personalities -no memory of events during another personality was dominant
-retains legal name and identity -help function by job, responsibilities, relationships
-aggressive/hostile impulses -seek to undermine more adaptive personalities
-work to avoid dangerous situations -aggressive towards threats
Diagnostic Criteria for DID
-2 or more distinct identities w/in one person -at least 2 of identities recurrently take control of persons behavior -memory loss of that is too extensive to be explained by ordinary forgetfulness
Posttraumatic Model (PTM)
argue that DID is a real disorder that can result from overwhelming childhood experiences such as severe abuse -dissociative response as a survival strategy that helped child cope w/ overwhelming trauma -develop alternative identities as a way of escaping severe physical/sexual abuse
Sociocognitive Model (SCM)
DID is an unfortunate contemporary fad that is fueld by naive or overzealous therapists and the media -believe DID is iatrogenic
-A disorder unintentionally caused by a treatment
What is the psychodynamic theory on dissociation?
-result from defense mechanism to cope w/ painful and overwhelming feelings
What are the 3 components of the psychodynamic theory of dissociation?
1. Repression 2. Splitting 3. Identification
dissociation = extreme form of repression -pushing traumatic event out of consciousness and it comes out in form of identities
"All good or All bad" Ex: abused child, a "bad" personality who seen as deserving of the abuse may be split off from "good" personality who is innocent
-taking on traits of someone else in form of a defense mechanism Ex: abused children who want to forget what is happening to them may identify with, and adopt personalities -abuse isn't good for kids self-esteem, they may take on traits that are admired by others
What are the behavioral components of dissociation?
-splitting of consciousness if followed by feelings of relief -by dissociating, emotional pain is avoided and dissociating behavior is reinforced
What are psychodynamic interventions for dissociation?
-provide supportive environment for helping clients develop adaptive responses to traumatic events
What are the cognitive components of dissociation?
-self-hypnosis -people who dissociate are putting themselves in a hypnotic, trance state to remove themselves from pain -divisions of consciousness -memory and attentional disruptions due to trauma
Schema-focused Cognitive Therapy
Focuses on changing cognitive schemas that are based on traumatic childhood experiences
How does the amygdala work with the hippocampus?
amygdala registers emotional significance of experiences and works w/ hippocampus to form/store memories for emotional events -reduced hippocampus is associated w/ trauma exposure - trauma may disrupt the evaluation/recollection of experiences
The use of medication to promote therapeutic remembering; used during WWII to help soldiers remember forgotten traumatic incidents.
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