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Michigan State University
Exam 2 Flashcards
Exam 2 Flashcards
Michigan State University
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Holmes definition of a compliment
a speech act which explicitly/implicitly attributes credit to someone other than the speaker for some "good" which is positively valued by the speaker and the hearer
What is an implicit compliment?
"your child is really well behaved"
Really complimenting parent not child
Two functions of compliments
1. to convey communicative meaning
2. increase solidarity
What is the dark side of compliments?
Compliments that are a power play
superordinate to subordinate
Compliments in other cultures
some see compliments as wanting something in return (necklace story)
OBLIGATION - burden
What is a street mark
Compliments from strangers can be...
creepy because they presuppose familiarity
Who did Janet Holmes study?
484 naturally occurring compliments
New Zealand Aboriginal
Holmes had how many male-to-male compliments?
Holmes had how many female-to-male compliments?
Holmes had how many male-to-female compliments?
Holmes had how many female-to-female compliments?
Overall conclusions of Holmes study
females give and receive the most compliments
males receive: 26%
Found the same results as Holmes (girls give and receive more)
ALSO: the more frequent compliments are, the more they're used for solidarity
in Poland, found the same results as Holmes
Holme's theory of women's compliments
Women see compliments as expressing solidarity and positive politeness
-flowery (what lovely children)
Holme's theory of men's compliments
Men see complements as referential and face threatening
(she didn't give examples though)
-direct (really cool earrings)
Holmes theory on female responses
They mostly shift (down play the compliment)
Order of results in all studies
What do males get complimented on?
What gets complimented the most overall?
Why do males compliment females more than f/m?
Why do men compliment ability and not possessions of females?
Men expect females to be less capable and do not value their possessions
Status and compliments
Men are more likely to compliment someone of a higher status
Majority super to subordinate
Who did Defrancisco study?
7 married couples
-ranged from newly weds to 35 years
Where did DeFrancisco record?
She had the couple record themselves having everyday conversations
tried to avoid observers paradox by not being there
only 2 deleted things
What did DeFrancisco look at?
What are violations in Defrancisco's study?
Stand-out violations in DeFrancisco's study
women interrupted a lot too (only a little less than men)
How much did men and women raise topics? DeFr
How much topic success did men and women have? DeFr
What does it mean that men raise less topics but succeed more?
When men do talk their almost always successful
Fishman and DeFran
Fishman talked about women doing the shit work in conversations
-men are withholding conversation
Difference model and DeFrancisco
-Women use conversation to create and maintain closeness
-Men only talk when they are interested in topic
Defrancisco: worries of married women
neither party worried about interruptions but the women say "they won't talk to me"
Who did Coats compare her data to?
Jones in 1980 who did an introspection on gossip
Who did Coates study?
Her group of friends
-Over 9 months
-Without them knowing
-At each other's houses
What is the speech situation in Coates study?
-"host" could have some extra power
Coates and gossip
Maybe her study isn't really gossip because gossip is generally a negative thing
Minimal responses in Coates study
1. to show you're listening
2. mark stages of conversation (only during discussion)
Stages of convo in Coates
find from book
Epistemic modality (Coates)
-A way of expressing how the speaker feels about the truthfulness of the convo
Tag questions (Coates)
Used to save face, makes a statement less direct
Reason for Goodwin's story
Literature focuses on differences between male/female but overlooks similarities
Who was Goodwin's study on?
Black urban girls in Philadelphia
Found similar results to Maltz and Borker for some play (crafts)
Other play was similar to boys (house)
What did Goodwin focus on?
Directives and their responses
Mitigated directives (Goodwin)
Try to make it seem like you're not directing
Aggravated Directives (Goodwin)
Straight up telling someone what to do
Two types of play context (Goodwin)
Task and Pretend
Goodwin's study on boy making sling shots
-used aggravated directives (and people complied)
-Asymmetrical relationship between leader and everyone else
Goodwin's study on task play
-mitigated control "Let's"
-equal relationships between speaker and addressees
Girls instructing others (Goodwin)
-Girls negotiated who lead
-anyone could step up and give instructions
-give instructions in a humorous way
Girls disagreements with leader (Goodwin)
-can disagree because there's no true leader
-arguments are to actually disagree
-say why they disagree (constructive critcism)
Girls pretend play (Goodwin)
-when girls fulfill the role of "mom" they use aggravated commands (says who does what)
-girls form coalition against those they don't want in the group
Conclusions from Goodwin
-girls do play equally in task play
-in pretend play the girls are similar to boys
(larger group, disagreement, leader)
-pretend play mimics real world hierarchy
Kiesling's homosocial desire
same sex relationship (usually refers to guys)
Who did Kiesling study?
A fraternity and their address terms
Greek life (Kiesling)
Kiesling's theory of men and women in greek life
men: hunting for sex
women: sexual prey
Kiesling says frat parties are about
1. Getting laid
Frat boy public talk (Kies)
-"fuck stories" during gavel
-homosocially trying to impress
-entertainment, creates bro bonds
Private frat boy talk
-talks about girlfriends and marriage
Hi honey I'm home (kies)
Sounds like marriage, making one bro wife (less dominant)
-tv show servant
-called a pledge this that did housework
"Bitch boy" kiesl
-indexing subordinate roles
-could be somewhat racial
bitch - weak
boy - age
"Dude" and "Man"
masculine and equal
Who did Cameron study?
got data from a student and his roommates
-"women, wine, and sports"
Cameron's definition of gossip
affirming solidarity of an in-group by constructing absent others an out-group whose behavior is examined
-resembled women's speech
a lot of latching
collaborative rather than competitive
y'know and like
Topics of convo in Cameron's study
-gay based on appearance and clothing
What does gay mean for the guys in Cameron's study?
Since they're talking about a guy hitting on a girl they're not actually meaning homosexual
Why is gay just "not masculine" Cameron
1. "really gay" on a spectrum
2. hitting on a girl but she's ugly (its masculine to hit on hot chicks)
Why is the guy the boys are talking about the antithesis of man Cameron
-short shorts year round
-no hair on legs
Differences between construction of masculinity in Kiesling and Cameron
Kiesling talked about mascuinity in contrast to women
Cameron in reference to other men
What do we use to make sounds
Throat (vocal folds, lyranx)
mouth (roof, tongue, lips, teeth)
velum (back of wind pipe)
Two types of sounds
Bumps between teeth on roof of mouth
Aveolar ridge (t stop is made here)
T vs D
D uses voice (stops)
K and G
Use back of mouth
G uses voice
Z and S
Z uses voice
Where is i made?
top front (heat)
Where is ea made?
bottom front (hat)
Where is a made?
Bottom back (hot)
where is u made?
Top back (hoot)
what are formant?
different spots/shapes in mouth
Podevsa studied who and what?
"heath" and falsetto
white, med student, openly gay
phonetory setting in which the vocal chords are tightly stretched (measured at F(0)
Average adult male
The three speech situations Podevsa
2. Dad's phone convo
3. Met with patient
Falsetto at BBQ vs. others
9.07% (two times more likely than other situations)
Falsetto is very obvious
What does Falsetto mean for Heath?
2. expressing surprise or excitement
3. Offering evaluating comment
4. Enlivening a direct quotation
5. Engaging the audience
game male diva....read about
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