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1. During approximately what time span did feudalism dominate in Europe?
5th through the 16th century
2. What was the dominant political geography of feudalism?
Feudalism manifested itself in the form of empires
-stable, conservative (reactionary), traditional (new products are worse, inferior)
-class hierarchy: pope, noble, monarch, knights, merchants/craftsmen, peasants/serfs
3. Was feudal society completely frozen, or did it change in some ways? How?
Stable, conservative, traditional; however view that “Dark Ages” were unchanging was a later, Renaissance construction. Feudal Europe did change, gradually.
4. Summarize the political and ideological role of the church in feudal Europe.
The church was the predominant political and ideological institution
-everyone deeply religious; pope had great power—top of hierarchy
-local priests were religious, social, and intellectual leaders—only literate people
5. What was the basis of wealth of the feudal aristocracy?
6. What sorts of energy sources did feudal society use?
All sources of energy were animate energy sources
-physical muscle power—human and some animal use
7. What is the difference between a serf and a slave?
Serfs: Not slaves, but bound to land by law and custom. Monotonous lives, worked by rhythms of seasons, illiterate, superstitious, frequent hunger and famine
Slave: Are considered property. NO RIGHTS.
8. Describe the differences between the feudal and capitalist city.
-Capitalist are market based, therefore production if used for exchange (not just subsistence as in feudal societies)
-Competition in capitalism forces innovation—capitalism is dynamic,changes quickly
-feudal societies change, but more gradually
-Instead of hierarchy based leadership (feudalism), status was earned ($$=power)
-demise of feudal aristocracy; ascendancy of merchants
-barter system (feudalism) shifted to a cash based system
9. What were guilds and what purpose did they serve?
They were used for craft/artisan production. It was similar to what we call “trades” today in that you were taught and practiced a craft.
**10. What role did towns play in the emergence of capitalism?
-small, densely populated area that was used for trade
-towns were important trading centers for emerging market systems
-competition for goods/services arise
11. What other parts of the world were more advanced than feudal Europe?
Arabs, China India
**12. What was bubonic plague and when did its largest epidemic enter Europe? What were the consequences?
-14th century: begin in Asia
-within 4years: 25million dead (1/4 of Europe’s population)
-took 2years for population to recover to what it was
13. Where was capitalism born?
Northern Italy (Florence, Venice, Genoa); trading ties to Mideast
14. What are markets and what role do they play in capitalism?
-primary (not only) form of resource allocation in buyers/sellers of commodities
-not unique to capitalism, but unique to importance to capitalism
-dominant concept: PROFIT; production for exchange and not subsistence
-competition brought innovation
15. Are markets unique to capitalism?
Markets are not unique to capitalism, but are unique in their importance to it.
16. What are the major classes of capitalism?
-demise of feudal hierarchy, aristocracy
-peasants: wage workers, proletariat, working class
-capitalist ruling class (businessmen) use mirage of classlessness to make self invisible
17. What is the process of commodification?
Activities/things that were previously not considered tradable become tradeable. Labor became a commodity with the emergence of labor markets. (ex: sex is an example because it is no longer free it can potentially be bought and sold)
18. What does it mean to say that labor became commodified?
19. What was the Enclosures movement?
18th Century Enclosures
privatized the common lands.
This allowed the upper classes
to prosper, while the working class suffered. The upper classes would use their power with the state to allow them access to the best land.
20. How did the growth of finance accelerate the emergence of capitalism?
-long distance trade (in anything not just precious goods of feudalism)
-brought about banks, joint stock companies, credit, accounting, national currencies
21. What spatial or geographic changes accompanied the growth of capitalism?
Capitalism creates uneven spatial development through capital investment and disinvestment.
-Uneven development at different spatial scales:
a. global system w Europe at center
b. North-West v. S and E Europe
c. cities v. countryside
-cash crops, rural depopulation
d. within cities
-land became commodities (rents)-home/work separation
22. What was the Hanseatic League?
-in Northern Europe
-alliance of trading leagues—create monopoly
-only law system, protection, mutual aid
-created new land/sea ports for trade
23. What social impacts did the printing press have?
Revolutionized the flow of information (literary rates went up)
24. What was the Enlightenment?
-the triumph of reason and science over faith
-Isaac Newton: invent calculus
-Mendelev: chemistry and periodic table
-Charles Darwin, etc
25. How was the Protestant Reformation related to the rise of capitalism?
Martin Luther: initiated Protestant Reformation
Max Weber: Protestant ethic caused capitalism; work was viewed as an ethical obligation and profit became a goal, not a sin
*?*26. How did capitalism foment the growth of nation-states?
27. What are some forms of inanimate energy?
-running water (high attitude to low)
-wood, coal à steam engine (James Watt 1769 – first working steam engine)
-all other teachnologies of industrial revolution revolve around this
-coal fueled the Industrial Revolution: work hard to get other Fossil Fuels: petroleum, actual gas
28. Define a technology.
-means to convert inputs to outputs
29. Why is capitalism technologically dynamic?
-Productivity increased enormously,
-steady production line until 1870’s then skyrocketed.
-It enables a free market allowing competition, causing an increase in technological discoveries.
30. What were the social consequences of the industrialization of agriculture?
-end of seasonal work rhythms
-mechanization of agriculture—rural-to-urban migration
-less farm help needed
-rapid rise in population growth rates—able to feed more people
-death rates drop: more food=control of disease
31. Where did the Industrial Revolution begin?
Britain in the late 18th, early 19th centuries.
32. What region of the U.S. did the Industrial Revolution create?
-people begin moving West
-products move more freely with railroads, able to expand to new region
33. When did Japan industrialize? What about Russia/USSR?
Japan: After Feudal Order; after 1808.
Russia/USSR: 1920’s under communism Stalin; forced through net capitalism
34. What impacts on the labor force did industrialization have?
-urbanization—factories, less farm-hands needed
-create industrial working class
-end of seasonal work rhythm
-child labor was common
-creation of labor unions—Luddites: technology seen as threat
35. Who were the Luddites?
-protect mechanized looms – (sabotage and destroy them)
-new technology as a threat, Ludding now means anyone opposing technology programs
36. What is a nation? What is a nation-state?
-nation: common culture, ethnicity, language, history, territory, culture
-no inclusion of governing process
-nation-state: political unit, not an ethinic one
-state whose territory corresponds to that occupied by a particular nation
37. What are four examples of nations that are not nation-states?
Scotland, Tibet, Kurds, Palestine
38. What was the Treaty of Westphalia and what were its major impacts?
-1648: moment in which nation-state is born
-signed to end 30years war
-independence of Portugal; break-up of Roman empire
-drew borders of nation-states that basically still exist today
-sovereignty: no state has authority to interfere with internal affair of another state
39. How does the ideology of nationalism celebrate the nation-state?
40. Are nation-states ethnically homogenous? Give examples.
41. What is the difference between race and ethnicity?
Race: Race is biologically almost meaningless, but real socially
Ethnicity: Affiliation with a group of people bound by a common culture
42. Is whiteness a social construction?
-Yes. Concept of “white” in the U.S. has varied over time
-Italians, Jews, Irish were not considered white, now they are
-Quadroons (1/4 black), Octaroons (1/8 black)—could pass for white after time
43. How does ethnicity affect people’s income and opportunities in the U.S.?
Ethnic minorities are generally poorer and less powerful. Ethnic/racial segregation pervades urban structure
*?*44. Was colonialism simply an “Age of Discovery” or can it be viewed in terms of the historical geography of capitalism?
-Yes/No—depend on own interpretation but I would say yes
-Yes: history of innovation cause for need of expansion, discoveries
-economic system—currency based
-backed by silver—New World had plenty of
-silver financed Europe’s entry into the global economy
-Europe tap into the resources of colonies
-colonized for a reason-Ex) cod in Canada, plantations of N. America, silver S. America
45. Was colonialism resisted? Why? Give three examples.
-seized control over a lot of Southern China
Everywhere Non-Western people fought back. Only Japan escaped.
47. What were six advantages that the West enjoyed in its rise to power?
1. Long history of technological advantages
-Agriculture, metal working, printing, ships, horses, guns, inanimate energy
-sustained, institutionalized innovation
2. Western “rational” legal-economic system: secular law à secure property rights
-government supported merchants, limited interference
3. Europe was never united: Political competition fostered freedom of dissent, creativity
4. Diseases esp. smallpox, measles
5. New World Silver financed Europe’s entry into global economy
6. New World allowed Europe to escape its ecological limitations
49. What was the Columbian Exchange?
Columbian Exchange of plants animals and germs of Old and New Worlds
From New World:
-Corn, Potatoes, tomatoes, peanuts, blueberries, tobacco
From Old World:
-Horse, Cattle, Pigs, wheat, banana, smallpox
51. What was the Hudson’s Bay Company?
it controlled the fur trade throughout much of British-controlled North America for several centuries, undertaking early exploration.
53. What was the triangular trade system?
W. Africa à (slaves) New World à (products) Britain à (remaining products back to) W. Africa
-Products = tobacco, indigo etc.
- Remaining products would go to African kings for slave trade
55. Who replaced the Ottomans in the Middle East and why?
19th c. French and British in Egypt.
-Suez Canal, cotton
After WW1 British and France took over Middle East
57. When and where did the Sepoy Rebellion occur and what were its effects?
1857; began in Calcutta; Its effects were mediocre, however the British came back and seized power once again in late 1857 massacring many men and boys.
59. Who are the Overseas Chinese?
-Overseas Chinese are those in SE Asia - Indonesia
61. How did colonialism reshape the economies of colonies?
Restructured economies around raw materials:
-cash crops and plantations, mineral ores, imports suppressed colonies’ industry (mercantilism)
63. Why does the nation-state mean something different outside of Europe than in it?
-created artificial boundaries à secessionism, civil war, tribal conflicts
48. Why was the New World depopulated shortly after the Europeans arrived?
Disease brought by the Europeans killed off the natives
They have no immunity to disease such as small pox that Europeans brought
50. What was the encomienda system?
Grant system: large farm/estate for growing plants/animals
Great for Spanish, terrible for natives in South America
52. Why did Europeans find it necessary to kidnap 20 million Africans as slaves?
Free/cheap labor force (only have to pay for slaves once and work for free)
Would have used natives in newly colonized country but there were not enough
Depopulated due to the effect of disease
54. How did the Berlin Conference affect the political geography of Africa?
Drew boundaries for colonies (political action)
1000 tribes collapse into 50 states
whether know each, get along or not
why Africa is still so politically unstable today
56. What was the British East India Company?
Replaced the Mughal empire in Southern Asia around the 17th century
58. Was China formally colonized? Explain.
No it was not formally colonized, though it was exploited by Britain due to its weak Manchu Dynasty
After loss of Opium Wars Britain profited at China’s expense
60. What motivated the spice trade in Southeast Asia?
expensive and high profit margins
spice used to hind the taste of rotting, old meat
62. How did colonialism reshape the geographies of colonies?
Declining opportunities—distribution of traditional agriculture, unequal distribution of land
Polarized geographiesCities become wealthy, rural areas decline—rural to urban migration
64. Was colonialism also a cultural and ideological process?
Yes. Much westernization, especially in religion and way of life
Put down local customs to further colonizing powers customs
Religion, western style schools—teach values, lifestyle, goals of W
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