Jamaica Climatic Pattern: Tropical marine climate; Rainy season June-November Socio-economic Indicators: Population: 2.7 million $10.6 Billion or per capita GDP of $3900 Ranked at ~91/177 on the UN Human Development Index Today Active 2 party democracy (Westminster model) Economy based on tourism, agriculture, mining, manufacturing and banking Dynamic & dominant Caribbean Culture Influences included European (Spanish & English), African, Asian (Chinese & Indians) Culture Expressed through language, music/poetry, dance, food & craft, religion, folk lore and general way of life Jamaican Food Draws from the Arawak Indians, England, Asia, & Africa Arawaks contributed corn and cassava (tapioca) Spanish contributed fruit trees, peas English contributed flour, pork, pickles, black pepper, and coffee Africans brought Yams E.g. Ackee and salt fish, Dukunoo, fufu, mackerel, bananas, and rundown Asians brought Curry, vegetables such as pak choy and mustard Herbs and spices: eskellion, thyme, scotch bonnet pepper Cooking is usually SPICY Jerk is local flavor and method of cooking National dish = Ackee and Salt Fish Jamaican Favorites Sunday dinner is SPECIAL Rice and peas chicken (peas = red kidney beans) Curry goat and Mannish Water (dish at special occasions) Pepper Pot Soup Fry fish and Bammy (bammy is flat bread made from flour of cassava) Festival = flour and corn meal like a ball and fried Pork, chicken, lobster, goat, etc Can be compared w/US style BBQ Cooked over a smoldering fire, moisture added frequently, use of pimento wood to add flavor Typical Breakfast = ?Brukfus? Hard dough bread, scrambled eggs and ?tea? Tea is synonymous with hot beverage Fried dumpling, callaloo, boiled green bananas, roast bread fruit, ackee and saltfish, liver & coffee ?tea? Cornmeal porridge, oat meal porridge Ackee and saltfish with boiled banana Breakfast is typically heavy Typical Lunch Boiled dumpling with mackerel complimented with boiled yam/rice Curried chicken or stewed chicken Rice and peas and fried chicken Healthy serving of CHO and protein Typical Dinner Rice, peas, and chicken Steamed fish with boiled yam and bananas Fast Food Jamaican patties (local beef turnover) Jamaican Jerk Confectionaries Other Favorites Curried goat is very popular Consumed generally as a part of the daily diet Is used as a celebratory meat for special occasions such as weddings, building a new house, or a cricket match Rundown= 1 pot meal using coconut, dried coconut, grated, vegetables, salt fish, and make a savory sauce and served with rice as a substitute for protein Dip and Fall back= when not enough food, this is what you fall back on. Uses flour, seasoned with pepper, salt fish and cooked to a sort of paste, using peppers, onions Beverages Homemade carrot juice, lemonade Fruit punch, Rum ? punch which includes own brewed Wray and Nephew or Appleton Rum Large agriculture sector so lots of fruit juice No drinking laws Health Issues Diabetes is common due to high consumption of CHO 50% of deaths Incidence of Obesity Obesity ? increasingly important problem in the Caribbean especially among females Social, economic and demographic transformations in Caribbean ? accompanied by changes in dietary and nutrition patterns Investigated as an explanatory variable in studies of chronic diseases BMI ? 30 Females: 34%; Males: 9% BMI > 85th %tile 20.3% women; 18.6% men Recent Studies and Interventions = Focused on lifestyle patterns & weight control Policy Jamaica (MOH) Strategy on ?Changing Lifestyles? to: Prevent and control obesity through ? physical activity Promoting consumption of healthy diet Lifestyle survey Attitudes Towards Obesity Attitude: Female Fatness Girls: men like fat women (50) and fat men are ugly (40) Boys: girls don?t like fat men (20) and men like fat women (20) Attitude: Obesity as ill-health: not seen as ill-health by girls (40), boys (8) Implications for Prevention Multiple approaches w/greater emphasis on education and training Policy initiatives need to address the barriers to effective implementation of obesity prevention and treatment programs Need for further elucidation of the social and cultural factors ? to be incorporated into preventative programs New Zealand New Zealand Influence Great Britain Maori SE Asia U.S. Seafood is not a significant part of NZ diet, despite the fact that it is surrounded by water Population 88% European descent 8% Maori, 4% mixed Anti-genetic modification, pro-environment, pro-?organic?, anti-nuclear Meals of the Day Breakfast Morning tea Lunch Afternoon tea Dinner Main food items in Diet Lamb Milk and dairy Kumara (sweet potato) Pumpkin, other Sheep industry in NZ is HUGE! 20 sheep to every person: supports meat and wool industry Lamb, Hogget (older lamb) and Mutton: Meat important part of NZ diet Dairy Products (big industry) Milk, butter, ice cream yogurt, cheese Fonterra: main dairy company (NZMP: NZ making it happen) Control 95% of dairy industry in NZ NZ exports 95% of dairy products, consume only 5% of what they produce Rest of dairy is exported to mostly SE Asia Make cheese from milk powder A2 Milk: Alpha-S2-Casein. Some data suggests A2 milk tastes better and is healthier Food brings people together Tea time (or is it coffee?) 10 or 10:30 am 3:00 pm New Zealand Food Afghan biscuits Chocolate biscuits w/walnuts Aztec biscuits White w/walnuts Pavlova (white meringue dessert) Named after Russian ballet dancer HokeyPokey ice-cream Meat pies Kumara chips (sweet potato chips) Roast lambs Paraguay Area: 406,750 sq km (slightly smaller than CA) ~ 6 million people Subtropical to temperate climate Average temp in summer time: 80-95 3 months of ?winter?=cool days Ethnic group: mixed Spanish & native Paraguayan (95%) South east and Northern region w/high rate of German-Brazilian migrants They really have mixed with Spanish More than 50% of population is considered urban Roman Catholic 80%-ish Paraguayan Food The main dishes include beef Beef consumption: 78 lbs/person/year, compared to 67 lbs/year in US Yucca, cassava, or manioc serves as ?bread? Boil and served as bread Very starchy Filling Eaten all day Corn as ingredient for many dishes Favorite drinks ?terere? (cold mate) Sun dried and becomes like a tea Mate (w/hot water) Beer! Asado=BBQ Asado is basically a selection of meats grilled on a parilla or BBQ grill Asado is usually cooked on open fires that are stoked primarily by natural wood charcoals which gives the meat a great smoky flavor. Meats are generally seasoned only with coarse salt Manioc (cassava), is a staple. Has been cultivated in nearly every area of the country for centuries ?You are as Paraguayan as the cassava? Traditionally, corn was Paraguay?s most rapidly growing food crop White corn was traditional of Paraquay, but yellow, high yield hybrids were increasingly common, especially among farmers Chipa is a type of corn bread sold everywhere?on streets, soccer game, and in chiperias Made from a mixture of starch, cheese, milk, & corn It is cheap & tasty Lady has herbs on side of street and makes ?magic? potion to make you ?feel better? Citrus fruits are ideal for subtropical & tropical climate of P Widely consumed: Pineapples, bananas, plums, strawberries, pears, avocados, guavas, papayas, mangoes, grapes, apples, watermelon Religion Lent: decrease meat consumption, more eggs, fish, cheese Wed and fri no meat Easter: ?unusual? meats such as pork, lamb Lamb is only on market during Easter ?Fiesta de San Juan? Feast, cook pretty much anything During winter Christmas: turkey, pork, chicken Only time Paraguayans eat turkey Always meat Buying Food Economic situation in Paraguay Monthly minimum wage: US $155 Food expenditure: 20-30% of this wage A family w/both parents working & at least 1 child the min wage is $280 Very poor country but they have a lot of access to food, unlike Africa Environmental Issues Rate of deforestation: 0.5% between 1990-2000 Beef exports to Europe, Russia If no forest, no water Many of country?s rivers suffer from toxic dumping Fish consumption Runoff from toxic chemicals used by farmers also seeps into waters Large scale farmers producing soybean and corn for exports Large farms dump lots of toxins in water Summary Factors influencing food culture Availability of ingredients Traditions Economics Environment Lots of Brazilian influence When African Slaves were in Brazil they brought Cassava CVD and obesity is a growing concern Life expectancy varies If you survive your first year, then 65-68 Infant mortality is very high. One of the highest in SA Fast food was not very successful (McDonalds, Pizza Hut) Maybe because of the way the food is prepared P has own version of fast food Like those found on the streets Fried food (cheaper, fast, tasty) France Nutrition Policy U.S. Nutrition policy vs. ?improving the health and well-being of Americans by developing and promoting dietary guidelines that links scientific research to the nutrition needs of consumers ? France Nutrition policy ?to protect health and to reduce the burden of food-related disease, while contributing to socioeconomic development and a sustainable environment? Recommendations for Healthy Living 5 small helpings of F/V per day A little bread, cereal, potatoes, or dried beans with each meal 3 helpings of milk and milk products 1-2 servings of meat, fish, eggs, poultry Limit fat intake from olive oil and butter, limit sugar intake from pastries, desserts, chocolate Limit salt intake Guidelines Water with meal and limit drinks w/added sugar No more than 2 glasses of wine for women and 3 for men Women get 6.76 fl oz of wine which is just a little more than in America 1 glass of wine in France is considered 10 centiliters 10 cl = 3.38 fl oz French alcohol servings are a bit more than Americans Chronic health problems Diabetes (mostly type 2) CVD Cancer Obesity Meal Patterns 3 meals/day Breakfast, lunch, dinner Petit Dejeuner (breakfast) Very little food and quick Consists of Piece of bread Croissant with butter, honey, jam Coffee, tea, hot chocolate Drink coffee out of bowl Easer to dip bread or croissant in Dejeuner (lunch) Noon-ish Last up to 2 hours Most stores close during lunch time Several courses Bread with water or wine Entrée: salad, raw, veggies or cold meats ?Plat Principle? or main course: meat, fish, vegetables, pasta After Plan Principle is more bread and cheese Dessert More wine Diner Aperitif (drink before dinner) Cheese plate at end can be replaced w/yogurt Dessert is usually a piece of fruit (bananas) ?Relationship with food? Eat slowly and enjoy company Side note: always use fork for salad. Don?t cut with knife. If lettuce is too big, fold it over Fork in left hand, knife and spoon in left Activities: Open Air Markets Fresh fruits and veggies Raw meats Agriculture, Livestock, & Cheese GMOs are BAD in France Chestnut farmer When chestnut falls from tree they had wild dogs came and eat the ?dirty? chestnuts so new ones could grow Portugal Mediterranean type csa climate in the south and csb in the north Hot summers, cold winters One of the warmest European countries Average 55 in north and 64 in south Diverse geographical regions Not homogenous geographically which created several distinct geographic regions that have shaped the culture of the people and their economy and society Northern Portugal is a mountainous, rainy region, characterized by many small farms and vineyards Landscape has led to political and economical demarcation Mountainous, rainy region, characterized by small farms and vineyards Central region Interior and costal parts Dunes in the coast and pine forests in the interior Fishing is big part of economy Southern Portugal has hills and plains Wheat production Olive oil is produced here Extensive estates that produce mostly wheat Extreme South Very dry region Very mountain-y but different than north Essential to economy in terms of production of fish ¼ of Portugal is covered by forest 1/3 of country is covered by trees Olives, cork oak, almonds, chestnut, and citrus trees Dietary Habits 3 main meals/day Breakfast 7-8 am Lunch 1-2 pm Dinner 8-9 pm 1 to 2 snack periods In season products?fruits, vegetables, fish Breakfast Dairy (milk, yoghurt), starch (bread, toast, cake), cereals (whole grain), and fruit Big emphasis on fruit (juice or whole fruit) Lunch Sit down lunch (main meal of day) Vegetable soup and/or salad Constituted by protein (fish/meat), starch (rice, potatoes), & veggies Dessert?usually fruit Wine is normal with each meal for adults Sodas are increasingly popular Dinner Veggie soup/salad Protein (fish/meat), starch (rice, potatoes), veggies Dessert?usually fruit So late so people usually don?t eat too much Family sits together and talks about day Nutrition Mediterranean diet Similar to Spanish, Italian, & Greek Use LOTS of olive oil Balance between meat and fish Consume lean meats (chicken, turkey, parts of pork) Balance consumption of F/V (soup, salad, dessert) Olive oil is predominant fat used in diet Emphasis on dairy osteoporosis Traditional dishes based on geography of each region, now network of food distribution allows even the interior regions to have access to fresh fish everyday Public schools in Portugal: always have a veggie soup seasoned w/olive oil and salt. Tend not to use any kind of dairy Beans: chick peas, garbanzo beans, red beans Beans + pork in interior Use salted cod in variety of ways to preserve Change in Nutrition 1974 trade Oils is same ? protein ? dairy ? F/V ? grains & starches Problems ? obesity Sedentary lifestyle: lack of exercise and change in labor Access to bigger variety of food; Skipping meals; Eating out BMI in 2010 ~26.1 BMI >25= 60,900 BMI >30= 15,500 1992: 1st McDonalds ? Child obesity 7-11 year old about 13% obese and over 30% overweight 1 of highest in Europe Education and Nutrition Integrated in life sciences in schools Schools: no pop, ships, & certain candy Nutrition information is available in school cafeteria Free evaluation and nutrition consultations for children in public health centers FOR CHILDREN Uses food circle, no pyramid like US Socialized health care system in Portugal Everyone has access to public health care Cheese producing country Sheep, goat, cows, low fat cheeses Non smoking law inside any restaurants passed last year Heavily taxed Slight decrease of smoking Physical activity is mandatory in schools Popular winter foods Bean stew with pork Fishing not active, people eat more meat Pears, apples Summer ? fish and several types of salads Tomatoes, green peppers Grilled fish Sardines Boil potatoes and stem veggies w/olive oil Strawberries, peaches, cherries More focus on preventative medicine Much smaller portion sizes than US China Geography & Agriculture Arable land: 254 million acre 0.19 acre/person Rice is grown in south North is dry wheat, corn , potatoes West is grassland, lots of animals raised there East crops Growing beans is very important Life Large families of 3 generations Grandparents baby sit and do house work Most live in apartments in city In country most live in bungalows Public transportation is possible Economic growth Past 50 years GDP grows 268x Veggies are very very cheap Local buying & eating habits Buy almost everyday At farmers? market near neighborhoods, grocery store, super market What: F/V, bean & bean products, cooked food Prefer to buy fresh everyday Soy milk, tofu Super markets are more expensive than farmers? market Meat at supermarkets is not pre-packaged, you choose what you want Lots of green leafy vegetables Eating culture Taste is more important than nutrition North: salty West: spicy South: light or sweet East: fresh tasting Pickled, marinated, corned food is high incidence of cancer Eating habits 60% calories = Rice and wheat Veggie and bean product Less meat and less fish Less milk and dairy, very little consumption of milk because $$$$ Dinner is very important to family Dim sum = variety of dumplings & steamed dishes. Similar to hur dourves Festive dinner: normally consists of multiple dishes Congee = rice & water mixed w/seasonings You Tiao/Crullers = fried twisted strips of dough. Usually served w/congee Seafood: very popular & usually served whole (more fresh when whole) Steamed rice, tofu, cooked wheat, stir fry, roast duck Frozen food, fast food, instant food, and snacks are more popular Eaten by those on the run, and teenagers Festival food Mid autumn festival?moon cake Very sweet Yolk inside Dragon boat festival?Tzung Tzu (may) Rice, leaf of wheat Spring festival?dumplings Spend all day making Festival of Lanterns?rice glue ball Rice flour Very stick Dietary guidelines Dietary pagoda Added physical activity 6g salt every day Recommend sweet potato, bean and bean product everyday Changes: ? fiber intake through whole wheat Specify consumption of salt Grain intake ? 601 g to 446 g ? in Tubers (potato, sweet potato) Vegetable and fruit intake kept stable ? Meat intake ? Egg intake In city More meat than recommended Current Nutrition Chinese Nutrition Society (like ADA) Most nutrition info comes from newspaper Nutrition problem Big difference between city and country side Undernutrition in mid western rural area Over nutrition in urban area ? in HTN Cancer Obesity Not a huge concern Diabetes CVD Food safety problem is dangerous Not all foods have entire food label Dining hall only offers food at lunch time or dinner time. Only order what you want and you pay for what you order Most women have problem with bone density Men don?t like fruit Philippines Geography & Climate Located in SE Asia 7000 islands in chain 2 main islands: Luzon and Mindanao Volcanic origins, very mountainous Tropical monsoons Wet Could be non-stop Green mold grew in her house Dry Very dry, hot Natural Disasters Typhoons ~19/year Earthquakes ~19-20/day Volcanoes Lahars= mudflows When typhoons occur during the same time as other events Legacy of Colonialism (greatest influence on culture) Spanish ruled for about 400 years and then US ruled Named after King Phillip Mexico of the Orient Indigenous People Hunter gatherers: Aetas, Igorots Hunting snare (igorots) Worn around the waist Carrying case Pics are used to hold snare in ground As bird walked by, feet would be caught in the holes of the wire Religion Roman Catholic Not mainstream Self flagellation Mock crucifixion Influenced by Spanish Animistic, superstitious Housekeeper believed there were spirits in her house Spread blood on new buildings to help ward off evil spirits Islam Tribal: separatist, conflict, animistic Language 180 dialects! Mostly austronesian but influenced by Spanish & English English and Tagalog (Filipino) Kamusta: Filipino word meaning ?how are you?? sounds like como esta Seguro means sure, absolutely, definitely, in Spanish, in Filipino it means maybe Government American style President: Gloria Macapagal Arroyo ?GMA? Bicameral Congress Democratic elections Transportation Most people do use busses US left hundreds of jeeps after WWII so they modified them and made them look like busses Used as trucks, taxis Jeepneys Family Ties Large, close knit Favoritism toward family members Respect!!! Receiving a ?blessing? Diet Very diverse Colorful Spain, china, Malaysia, Mexico, US Core food: rice FV, pork, chicken, seafood Not a lot of meat in diet National dish Adobo Spicy stew Variations: chicken, pork Usually a lot of potatoes, and little meat if served in home Lunch box Lined with banana leaves, rice, and adobo Vinegar, soy sauce, pepper corn, bay leaves Other popular dish Pancit Rice noodle, cabbage, carrots, maybe meat Typical meat is pork Lumpia Shanghai-style Like an eggroll Street food Very convenient and low cost Adidas: roasted chicken feet Beta-max: dried chicken blood that has been glued Banana filled Lumpia: Turon Ice candy: orange, chocolate, or avocado popsicles Balut: fertilized duck egg Most popular 18 day old Boiled Fruit Star-apple Mango, very sweet Jackfruit Smelly 2-3 feet long Vegetables Bitter melon Sour Squash family Winged beans Vegetables are widely recognized in being deficient Cassava Poisonous if not treated properly Cassava cake Eating Style Use fork and spoon Uses fork to push food towards spoon and eat from spoon Poverty and Hunger Affects 1 in 5 Filipino families 13 million went hungry in 2007 3.4 million in Manila slums 40% live on less than $1/day Smokey mountain Landfill in Manila Many lived there Constant haze of smoke due to eruption of fires from methane gas 1995 government closed Smokey mountain but people still live there Payatas Another landfill People go in and gather trash but no people live there Go in for 15 min/day Good things to know? Largest ethnic group in US 2nd largest Asian American ethnic group Flip-flops= sandals, flip is bad word Hospitality Give a gift if guest in a home Never food because that implies host can?t afford food Receive a gift Usually a pineapple Never refer to host wife as hostess Pointing is with the lips Concept of time ?maybe next week? Relaxed culture Holding hands Same sex hold hands if good friends or related Cameroon The meaning of Food What we consume, how we acquire it, who prepares it, who?s at the table, and who eats first is a form of communication of culture Life: beyond merely nourishing the body, what we eat and with whom we eat can inspire and strengthen the bonds between individuals, communities, and even countries? Family: food plays a large part in defining family roles, rules, and traditions? Culture: attitudes, practices, and rituals surrounding food Cameroon ? Named by 15th century Portuguese explorers ? Rio dos Camaroes (?River of Prawns?) Country Background Slightly larger than CA Population 18,467,692: growth rate = 2.2% Colonial: German, British, French Independence: 1961 French, English = official languages Religions: indigenous beliefs 40%, Christian 40%, Muslim 20% Africa in Miniature ?All of Africa in a Triangle?: it has all major climates and vegetation of the continent > 230 different ethnic/linguistic groups Geographic Background Natural resources are better suited to agriculture and forestry than to industry Most agriculture is done at the subsistence scale by local farmers using simple tools Farmers sell their surplus produce, and some maintain separate fields for commercial use Urban areas are reliant on peasant agriculture for food Production by Region Coast ? commercial cultivation of bananas, cocoa, oil palms, rubber, tea Western highlands ? cash crops include coffee, sugar, tobacco North ? cotton, groundnuts, and rice Livestock ? cattle in north, pigs in south, goats throughout the country Coastal ? fishing employs people and provides 20,000 tons of seafood each year Bushmeat ? wild game, a delicacy in urban areas Economy ? Overview Oil resources Favorable agricultural conditions One of the best-endowed primary commodity economies in sub-Saharan Africa Self sufficient in food production Structure of the Economy Agriculture ? products: Coffee, cocoa, cotton, rubber, bananas, oilseed, grains, root starches; livestock; timber Industries Petroleum production and refining, aluminum production, food processing, light consumer goods, textiles, lumber, ship repair Trade Exports ? commodities Crude oil and petroleum products, lumber, cocoa beans, aluminum, coffee, cotton Exports ? partners Spain 19.8%, Italy 15.7%, Franc 11.7%, South Korea 9.4%, Netherlands 6.1%, US 5.7% Imports ? commodities Machinery, electrical equipment, transport equipment, fuel, food Imports ? partners France 23.4%, Nigeria 12.8%, China 9%, Belgium 5.8%, US 4% Traditional Food Cuisine varies by region, but a large, one-course, evening meal is common throughout the country. A typical dish is based on cocoyams, maize, manioc, millet, plantains, potatoes, rice, or yams, often pounded into dough-like fufu (cous-cous) This is served with a sauce, soup, or tea made from greens, groundnuts, palm oil, or other ingredients Meat and fish are popular but expensive additions Dishes are often quite hot, spiced with salt, red pepper, and Maggi In more affluent areas of Cameroon a more French style cuisine is eaten Food in Cameroon Many F/V, as well as grilled fish, fufu, endole, cassava, and large amounts of rice and chicken Sauces are usually accompanied by rice (riz) or a thick mashed potato-like substance that comes in 3 main forms Couscous, pe, or fufu ? all made from rice, corn, manioc, plantains, bananas Street food is typically good, consisting mainly of grilled spiced-chicken or beef A loaf of bread, tomato, & avocado is Cameroonian treat for lunch Cameroonian Cuisine Varied cuisine with French influence National dish: ndole = stew consisting of bitter leaves, nuts, and fish or goat meat Staple foods: cassava, yam, rice, plantain, potato, maize, beans, millet Grow wide variety of F/V French introduced French bread and Italian pasta, but too expensive Tomatoes, bitterleaf, cassava leaves, okra, garden egg Protein comes from fish (poultry/meat too expensive) Bushmeat: pangolin, porcupine, giant rat, chimpanzee, gorilla Brochettes: barbecued kebab made from chicken, beef, or goat Ndoleh: spicy stew containing bitterleaf greens, meat, shrimp, pork rind, peanut paste In big cities there are westernized restaurants and burger bars Mealtime Customs 3/day Fruit, porridge, boiled plantains, cassava, and boiled eggs for breakfast Lunch/dinner: starchy dish such as fufu, boiled cassava, rice or millet, generally served w/veggie soup or a hearty stew Meal preparation = time consuming Food is eaten w/fingers of right hand because it ?tastes better? Men, women, and children eat separately If polygamy each wife eats with her children and she sends food to husbands house Typical Meal of the Day In urban area breakfast may include coffee, tea, milk, bread, or fruit In rural areas, the leftover from the previous nights dinner In rural areas breakfast is eaten, but lunch is not important, as many people are cultivating their fields during the day Chronic Disease or Deficiency Urban residents eat 3 meals/day plus snacks and are sedentary, in offices or schools Rural adolescents are healthier even though they eat less Urban adults are at risk for obesity and HTN 1/3 children < 5 suffer from chronic malnutrition (32%) w/13% acute malnutrition Islam Arab, Middle Eastern, Muslim Arab = ethnicity Middle Eastern: geographic location Muslim = religious identity 18% of Arabs are Muslim Islam is youngest of 3 monotheistic religions Second largest in world 90% are Muslim in ME Indonesia = largest Muslim population Mohammad: final prophet Quran: holy book = 1st source of law Masjid/Mosque: place of worship 5 pillars Shahada?testimony Salah?prayer 2 forms: obligatory prayer 5 prayers a day: dawn, noon, mid day, sunset, dusk Sawm?fasting Ramadan Zakaah?charity 2.5%/year Hajj?pilgrimage Islam is not only religion, way of life Prevention vs. treatment Modesty Clothing, money Respect (elders, teachers) = VERY IMPORTANT Education Required on every Muslim Moderation: The prophet said: ?Fill one third of your stomach with food, one third with water, and one third with air.? (Quran) Right vs. Left Eat with right hand At the Table Mention Allah?s name Don?t grab something from other side of table, take what?s in front of you Eat sitting up Religious Observances and Holidays Ramadan Goes by lunar caldender New Years (Lunar Calender) Migration year, starts at day of Migration Eid Al-Fitr Eid Al-Adha Food Halal: allowed Anything that is not Haram: closed hoofed herbivores, birds, all seafood Haram: forbidden/not allowed All meat eating animals Blood Big in the US! Pork is forbidden Alcohol: harm outweighs benefits ?Don?t go drunk to prayer? Eventually completely banned Buying, selling, making is all considered a sin Thabiha: slaughtered according to Islamic Law Slaughtered with only one cut Jugular vein cut, drain all blood ?I?m slaughtering _____ in the name of god? The people of the book Their meat is allowed If you are served meat at a house, eat it but don?t go buy it yourself Food and Culture Hospitality and generosity If you have guest, make them feel royal Illness After birth?breast feeding Recommended till age of 2 Aqeqa?newborn meal (2 steps) On 7th day shave hair off and weigh baby Take weight of hair and get that much of gold and give it to poor Slaughter something and have a huge dinner for people or give meat to poor Funerals Family of dead is not suppose to cook for first 3 days Ramadan 2 meals Before sunrise-breakfast meal After sunrise-break-fast meal-GET IT! Starts by breaking fast, family event Preferred to break fast on a date (milk or yogurt works too) Generally full meal Breakfast Followed by soup and salad Entrée Dessert: only have dessert during Ramadan Ramadan pancakes Batter is a little lighter than pancakes Don?t flip Stuff: sweet cheese, walnuts, pistachios, heavy cream Then stick in oven or fry it and drizzle in sugar syrup Eid Al-Fitr Follows Ramadan Haram to fast on this day (not allowed to fast, it is a sin) Celebrates completion of Ramadan Zakaah?obligatory charity Required for everyone 4 full handfuls of food (must be food) per person Usually given as a grain (rice) Breakfast: fasting not allowed, usually includes a breakfast or light snack Everyone comes to this, huge celebration Some form of food at celebration Kaa?ak or Ma?amoul: cookie Flour dough, stuff it with dates, pistachios, walnuts Eid Al-Adha Around time of Hajj Feast of sacrifice: 12th month of Lunar Calendar Cattle w/meat distributed to poor, 1/3 can be kept for yourself Food as medicine Habbatu Alsawdaa or Habbat Albarakah Black cumin: blessed seed Honey: mentioned in Quran and prophet sayings Rose water is used in sugar syrup and lots of desserts Yogurt drink Judaism Sections of Jews Human hand can?t touch Tora Orthodox (conservative) Modern orthodox Conservadox Conservative Reform Reconstructionists (liberal) = As a community we will decide how to approach each law of Judaism Kosher as a Way of Life Means ?fit? or ?proper? Why? Respect and bring holiness to dinner table Rules Developed in biblical times No pig at all No blood: blood is holy, soul of animal Meat must not be eaten w/dairy; wait 3-6 hours before mixing meat and dairy ?Baby must not be killed in mother?s milk? Kosher Slaughtering (HUMANE!) Done by a shochet, must be well trained in Jewish law Must be followed to a T Animal may be salted Blood is spilled on floor and buried and then blessing is said FDA rarely evaluates a Kosher butcher Jews are brought together by food Yum Kippur: fasting 24 hours In order to be focusing solely on repenting Comes in fall so short day Very large meal the night before and then not allowed to eat till sundown the next day Passover: leaven bread for 8 days Bread: very sweet egg bread Brisket: fatty piece of meat Egg noodles: egg, cheese, sugar The Extremes Reformist Eat what I want, some will eat pork Orthodoxy view 2 fridge, 2 dish washers, 2 sets of dishes Implications for Dietitian Expensive to keep Kosher!!! Meat is high sodium to remove the blood from animal High CHO diet Jews and Alcohol Drink at every meal Friday night begins Sabbath: bless wine and then drink it Passover: 3 glasses of wine over course of holiday
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