Exam 2 9/22Vector ? organism that transmits disease to humans Ex. mosquitoes, gives malaria, benga, yellow fever Bicultural adaptation Any trait or condition that enables an organism to meet its basic philological and reproductive need These traits and conditions are truly bicultural Humans are exceptionally adaptable organisms Wide habitation range ? look at where we find human populations: every area of the world except Antarctica (Tropical Rain Forests, Desserts, Plains, Grasslands, Islands, Mountains) Only 2 other mammals that exhibit range like humans: dogs and rats Diverse plasticity ? biological variation Bergmann & Allen?s Rule ? volume vs. surface ratio in humans Ex. in hot climates, high vs. wide Taller = better in heat Cold: people are very short & stocky (heat) Body morphology ? body conforms to their environment and weather conditions better (Mesai: long and slender so they can deal with the heat better) Pigmentation ? Thermal radiation Malan in skin Humans need sunlight to generate vitamin d Melanin protects the skin from the sun damage Lack of Vitamin D can be depicted on femur bones Melanin ? Glogger?s Rule has to deal with the concentration of Melanin in human populations looking at the amount of in solar radiation South Asia Indians that now live in London ? don?t get enough Vitamin D and their kids could grow up and have skeletal problems Melanoma ? white Australians have the highest population of this disease than anywhere else in the world Red Queen Hypothesis ? writing of Allison Wonder Land ? adaptations can be red queens; a step forward for some type of benefit you get enough vitamin D; however you take population and move to Australia they take 2 steps back and contract Melanoma Immense Cultural Diversity Languages of the world, dress, diets Humans are extremely adaptable ? need protein (can eat fish or cow?s blood w/milk) Increase in longevity ? 1800 - 1850 - Average lifespan was 40 years Now: into the 70?s for male and 80?s for women Humans adapt to their environment that?s why the life spans have increased Drugs, diets, immunizations against disease Population Growth Humans successful at reproduction: WHY? Meeting our basic physiological needs India may surpass China in population 3 Primary Avenues of Human Adaptation Genetic Ave. ? many genetic traits that confer an advantage Our ability to engage in language Opposable thumb Bipedal Dexterity tool use Concealed ovulation ? insecure males bond Flow of resources to offspring Menopause ? men can father a child from age 70 or beyond Why? Due to the high cost of pregnancy Pigmentation Genetic adaptation to disease ? sickle cell traits ? Africans ? heterozygous conditions ? humans with this trait their hemoglobin is different; people perish due to anemia Jewish people in Easter Europe ? Ashkenazi ? researchers have known that they have a genetic disease known as Tay-Sach?s Disease ? individuals have to receive alleles from both parents; immune to TB; people around them were dying due to TB (Genetic adaption to an infectious disease) Developmental or Physiological Ave. Adaptations that individuals develop early on in their life cycle; if and when they are exposed to certain stressors; unlike genetic adaptations; Developmental are acquired over time; have them or you don?t Duffy Negative ? 100% immunity against Vivax Malaria; American South Why children surviving? Genetics Have a negative basis Ex. Lima, Peru: go into highlands and want to visit the Incan capital of Cuzco 12,000 above sea level; short of breath due to high altitude; amora or cetuation Indians have an adaption to these high altitudes; short slight of built w/100 lbs packs on back going up mountains barefoot; physiological adaptations: large massive heart needed to pump blood; large lungs; numeral increase in the air sacks; have more blood than us; pint more blood; developed by living there and born there 1540 ? defeated by Spanish by Pizzaro Brothers ? defeat owed to Small Pox; Cuzco ? after this conquest; asked Spain King to move because they were being victimized by Incan spirits; 80 years (proof) not a single woman was successful at reproduction; livestock aborting ? animals not adapted to high altitudes; moved from Cuzco to Lima ? no more spirits; More Oxygen Nirobia Kenya; 7000 feet Great athletes; can run long distance; huge hearts; huge lungs Tiromara, Mexico ? high altitude (Indians) If not physically built for high altitudes: hypoxia ? not getting sufficient oxygen to areas of body; light headed- short of breath Point of Submersion in ice? temperature will gradually decrease cause tissue damage Inuits - temp will drop but will gradually level off ? peaks in temp process known as Vasodilatation ? veins expand ? blood rush down ? Vasodilatation constriction ? veins constrict ? doesn?t cause tissue damage and can remain longer in ice cold water ? Louis Wave ? rise and drop; rise and drop ? temp pattern Cultural Adaptations Ancient, language, classifying kin, development of food related technology through which individuals get food sources Human skilled predators/hunters Men will hunt deer or antelope ? run; animal gets tired and we strike - Tarahumara ? renounced by running down deer Domestication of plants and animals 10000 years ago ? 7000 years ago Due to increasing population Red queen ? adaptation, domestication, drought, civil war Examples: Chenopodium ambroisiodes ? (Spanish-Epazote) Name derived from an Aztec ? refers to this plant as Skunk Plant ? very disagreeable to many 9/24Black beans contain this as a flavoring agent; very strong taste; preserves the bean (why is Epazote used for flavoring); how did they know? ? women discovered through observational skills Ashkenazi ? Eastern Jewish Europe Hypoxia ? not enough oxygen to tissue High risk: people who visit Natives of high altitude: larger heart, lungs, more blood Glogger?s Rule ? pigmentation Populations in Northern ? lighter skin ? need to absorb vitamin D Red Queen Hypothesis ? every step forward take 2 back Ancestral to new environment ? melanoma Male Adaptation Human in various places/time periods Adaptation is trapped Ex. Yanamano Indians ? very aggressive ? warfare leading cause of adult male mortality Southern Venezuela; Western Brazil Why do they engage in violence? People are more likely to fight other groups for land therefore more animals Marvin Harris ? tropical rain forest; very few large mammals; deer, monkeys; Protein: fish, insects, brazil nuts, - not stressed in terms of protein Explains why Aztec engaged in human sacrifices and cannibalistic behavior Hearts cut out; bodies thrown down to plaza; dismembered, skin used for soup Human sacrifice in terms of protein Spiralina Algae ? grow in great abundance surround the island ? very high in protein ? regularly consumed ? only nobles ate soup Adaptation is trapped Handguns are adaptive More jobs available because people doe from shot wounds. People do stupid things because Ignorance Ex. Mississippians Indians didn?t know that they lacked certain needed nutrients Addiction Ex. addictive to drugs Conformity Humans are hard-wired to survey area around them, and watch what others do, and then follow what these other people do for acceptance Ex. Beriberi ? nutritional disorder Arises due to a chronic lack of Thiamin ? researchers were struck by the high prevalence of Beriberi Thailand ? consume rice ? very high in Thiamin Problem arose due to a long condition issue of flavoring rice with a sauce made out of oil and putrefied fish ? in this sauce was an enzyme known as Thiaminase ? this destroys all the Thiamin in the rice Warner?s Rust-Proof Summer Corsets ? Every Pair Guaranteed - Necessity for Summer Wear Image printed in a ladies magazine Early 1900s Not good for adolescent girls to wear corsets because it gives them a wasp-like figure Woman in a corset ? VERY VERY TINY Waist ? removed ribs from bottom right and left side 16 inch waist ? women of the day Swanbill Corsets Diaphragm is pushed upwards from wearing corsets for periods of time Women were the fair of the sexes Women couldn?t breathe properly Women were fringed; corset changes pelvis shape Corsets also misplaces uterus Intimate relations painful; child ?birth very dangerous Corsets ? maternal and infant mortality Lower classes, didn?t wear corsets, enjoyed sex, breathed properly, had kids easily WHY were corsets in high demand? Stature Shoes, approximately 4 inches; elite in China ? FOOT BINDING Sign of status Problems: children ? food would be bent backward and bandaged/constricted which then bends the bones of the foot Can?t walk Why? Conformity High rank/status Adaptive Piercings Guy w/piercing through his septum Papua New Guinea Sign of membership Ring in Ears and Lip (Africa) Lip-stretching at the age of 1; small plug, once healed, a larger plug will be put in; eventually stretching it to 6 inches across in lower lip Beauty, membership, Adapting, Widely spread Cracked plate in man?s lip Man w/ scares all over eyebrows ? Cicatrization -Purposely scaring of the body Incisions made along his brow and then dirt and fire wood ash put in incision and gets infected then scar tissue w/swelling sign of ethnic membership and high status and high status Southeast Asia, neck stretching Adult women, when young mothers would place brass neck rings around neck all the way to chin, elevates the head and pushes on clavicles giving you an extended neck adaptive Guy w/tattoos Japanese have excelled in the art of tattooing So valued in this art that some individuals that every part of their body is tattooed other than the head Upon the death of some individuals; morticians carefully remove skin and places tattooed skin in a museum American Tattoos Walking butt-bird This guy assaulted woman, lady didn?t get a good look of face but identified tattoo, was then arrested WOW Tattoo Adaptive Cranium deformation Widely spread throughout world Individual when an infant have some type of material on forehead and other side on a wood plank, in grew into the board and ended up as a cone head Why? Membership in a group Cranium w/ 2 holes Bone was drilled out when person was living ? trephination ? removal of bone from skull Sharp instrument ? cut scalp ? expose bone ? drill ? remove it Done because: allow malevolent spirits to escape then the head, alleviating sufferers! Exposes brain making it easy for bacteria to enter the Lorain, many times get a bacterial infection, which is fatal New aged group in California ? photograph of woman with a mirror ? black and decker drill w/a bit; drilling hole in her head; doing this because it allows them to elevate to a higher spiritual plain Jade added to tooth Practice of dental in lays; middle America for thousands of years; Procedure: On back, open up, take a drill, start drilling into incisors, finally goes through all the way, carefully crafted of some type of material is pushed into the tooth Exposed root: what happened to the bone? Bone loss; infection; getting access around tooth that eats the bone (not good because it could get into the brain) Teeth deformation as well, has been filed away w/wooden file, take away the enamel, exposing inner tooth (MASSIVE INFECTION) WHY? To fit in with others 9/29People without dental art are outcasts Cicatrization Scaring of the body, face, back, front side of body; visible scars Why do people do this? Part of culture; they are conforming into their cultural script Trephinatim Purposely drilling holes into the cranium Why do people do it? Part of the cultural script; conformity Beriberi Malnutrition of Thiamin Arises due to a chronic lack of Thiamin ? researchers were struck by the high prevalence of Beriberi Thailand ? consume rice ? very high in Thiamin Problem arose due to a long condition issue of flavoring rice with a sauce made out of oil and putrefied fish ? in this sauce was an enzyme known as Thiaminase ? this destroys all the Thiamin in the rice Foot binding Crammed feet into 4 inch shoes High status or rank Very popular Diffused from china to Mongolia and over to Korea Women couldn?t walk Women had to be carried on a litter Foot-binding, women have to have an escort everywhere because they can?t walk, so they can?t walk around and have an affair Adaptations trap ? anthropologists try to make everything (behaviors) seem as if the people were adapting to environment Male adaptive behaviors ? peer review commentary was very favorable except one female reviewer; maladaptive behaviors could be beneficial In Africa as we speak there are millions of women whose genitals have been surgically altered (Clitorechtomy) After puberty woman?s clitoris is surgically removed The labia are sewn together except for a small opening Ultimately adaptive: when a couple interacts in intimate relations; the male un-infibulates the women for sex and after sex the male re -infibulates her; adaptive because it holds in the seminal fluid Painful and dangerous to women but done in order to fit in and fear of cuckoldry Conformity that arises because of the husbands cuckoldry, the procedure lowers her pleasure so she?s less likely to have an affair Human universals Language Thousands and thousands of different languages Many animal species communicate but only humans have language Human language is a symbolic form of communication; based on symbols Symbols ? arbitrary contract that refer to something else Words are symbolic and that they refer to other things Symbols are open If we have a particular sound (s1) it could refer to thousands of different things Tree (arbol, Spanish; che, Mayan) Thousands of ways to refer to a tree Animals communicate; based on signs Signs are closed Researchers have studied animal communication Vervet monkeys (east and south Africa) Preyed upon by a number of animals (terrestrial animals, snakes) Particular calls for certain animals Eagles souring; they make a call and they rush out of trees and into brush Pack of wolves they call and this causes them to scurry to the top of the tree Snake, call: stand up and look around Human language based on symbols that are open thus why we have different languages Displacement ? ability to refer to things not immediately present Susto/assustado ? Mexico Individuals who have lost their souls due to freight; object of the therapy is to invite the soul back into the body Don?t see soul escape, they just believe it Much of human culture based on this Languages change rapidly, other animal forms of communication wolves, dolphins, etc. Technological change Lexicon IMPORTANT ASPECTS OF LANGUAGESYMBOLS DISPLACEMENT CHANGE Sounds Language is sound based has a limited number of sounds (PHONEMES) Phoneme ? building blocks of any language English ? 44 Endless number of combinations of sounds Multiplicity of patterns ?ability to combine and recombine and recombine phonemes to form words, sentences with endless meanings with a limited number of sound ? thus we have different sounds, different things, different meanings Don?t have somatic content Larger number of rules that dictate who we string phonemes together Morphemes ? convey somatic significance ? mean something 2 different categories: Free morphemes ? convey meaning by themselves (boy) Bound morphemes ? are altered; and how we alter them linguistically (boyish) (ISH ? utter it by itself; what does it mean? Has no relative meaning by itself) Rules Plural markers (books, pigs) ? some plural markers are voiced and some are not ? have agreement with plural markers and the morpheme it modifies Other rules related to Grammar? morphemes are strung together so they follow the rules of different languages What we say must abide by rules of our language Youngsters make grammatical errors and are corrects Any and every language has a large number of rules that pertain to grammar Meaning Meanings are changed if and when we change morphemes Each and every sentence that we utter is based on being fed up or going crazy Many factors that affect meaning Linguistic frames Take a photograph and place it in a frame Messages about messages; if we alter the frame; we can ultimately change the meaning of the photograph Examples: Frames in English Intination ? powerful frame; morpheme different ways of saying the same thing Ava passed the exam Volume is a linguistic frame Repetition ? You better study, you better study Serious thing Facial and bodily gestures serve as frames Eye contact; pointing Modify the meaning of what is said; the frames that we embellish what we say round of semantics This is how we modify the language Gesture: extra linguistic mode of communication How we convey meaning 10/1 Displacement ? ability to refer to things not immediately present Uniquely human; we create rich complex meanings of the world around us Susto ? Hispanic, Native American ? soul capturing Zemoguani ? fish belief among the Kiowa of Oklahoma explain the disappearance of people; people disappearance due to the fish monster took their scalp Phoneme: basic building blocks of language Difference between phoneme and morpheme ? morpheme?s convey meaning Free and bound morphemes ? free conveys meaning by itself; bound conveys meaning only when it is attached to a free morpheme Linguistics frames ? message about a message Intination ? repetition, volume, gestures Extra Linguistic or Nonverbal Communication Both the same Use of physical space and use of the body How we decorate the body How we use to body to posture, gestures Where and how we touch All avenues to linguistic or nonverbal communication Certain gestures are universally employed by humans; they are innate We recognize the meaning of this gesture; and the person could be a different culture Certain gestures are employed by some nonhuman primates German Ethologist: study of animal behaviors Eibel-Ibesfeldt Ethnology: Biology of Behavior Utilized film to document these ?universal communication releasers? Gestures that are found everywhere and most of them are found in nonhuman primates See such culture things like: smile, raising of the eyebrows [chimps do it], turning of the head sideways, discomfort, fist [chimps, gorilla] these types of gestures are very ancient; see them in nonhuman and human Some gestures are universally seen: smile, frown, tears, why do babies cry? (to get attention) humans are apathetic so are nonhuman primates Others are culturally specific, found some places but not others Ex. Guatemala, Mayan Indians they points as we do w/the hand but if the mother is waving, she will use her lips to point when she was leaving Research in this area falls into two areas: Proxemics : utilize and manage physical space when we are engaged in conversation with others and how we manipulate that space When we speak & we are talking to someone that we don?t know, we keep our distance of about three feet Extremely important: extra linguistic communication is situation status dependent (male, female/student professor) Why is the door to the man?s room larger than the women?s? In Mexico, Masculinity complex Kinesics: use of the body to communicate, gestures South East coast of India: Pondicherry Head gesture swaying head back and forth: means agreement as in yes we have things Who we touch, where we touch, how we touch ? situation status dependent Football: good play (smacks butt) Change the status and the situation won?t be a nice outcome How we sit and how we carry and display the body ? culturally varies and situation status dependent How we blink can affect the realm of extra linguistic communication We see differences by gender and of course the context and the status of the individuals Somatic art: Body art How we dress/ what we put on the body/ modify the body Tattoos Painting of the nails Hindu/Pondicherry, India They wouldn?t see men as being curious at all but Americans would Odors: perfume, cologne Latin guys: radiating the smell of their cologne; over apply Body piercings Not all that unusual today to see a man wearing an earring Clothes Huge affect on communication Hair styles Plains Indians: Native North American Indians have tribal haircuts 1840 Kiowa: front left part of the hair is cut; rest was long Osage Indians: Western Missouri, now in Oklahoma: Moatize and Clan organization; clans are dissent (kinship) groups; matraclans or patraclans; 22 kin-groups ; specific clan, specific haircuts One side of hair shaved other side hair; types show what clan the youngster is in Plains Indians: gestures Arm up fist balled: Indians would stop and do this gesture and the other Indians respond by gesture (half hand on cheek) Montana: Crow and Western Suit Mortal enemies Waving arm up and in a circle motion Two finger of left wrist ? Cheyenne Indians Hands over ears is the gesture for Crow Surgical procedure to improve appearance Restricting of the nose, lypo-suction, implants Japan: women undergoing incredibly surgery to improve the height of them; femur broke, realigned, overtime later pressure puts on so growth isn?t rapid so that if and when it is successful you will be about an inch or two taller; most of the time it doesn?t work 10/6They do this for Stature, status, cultural success Next Tuesday Exam ? 50 questions Chapters 3, 9, and 10 Bicultural adaptation, know examples, people, Ketuwa (highland Peru) Lewis Ways, Gloggers, Defiance of people in England ? Vitamin D Episote ? food ? curves the growth of bacteria, increases the rate of edibility ? South America Maladaptive Traits: main theme conformity Jewels in teeth ? started in ancient Mexico (Mesoamerica) Difference between human based communication and other animal communication We use symbols which are open (have a given sound) ex. Mas (more in Spanish; but in Portuguese) Situation status dependent ? extra linguistic communication Status: male/female; adult/non adult (not old enough to wear lipstick); football players (smacking on butt) Who we are/ where we are determines how we use the body Gestures, somatic art Marriage and Kinship Two basic human universals Monogamy ? 1 spouse and only 1 spouse; with divorce we see serial monogamy ? this is where they remarry, divorce, and remarry Polygyny ? 75% of world?s population Geographically, carefully at the diseases impacting population, we see something interesting Bobbi Lowe ? University of Michigan Evolutionary biologist Interested in stress and how humans adapt to human stressors Disease is a stressor Arizones ? desserts ? sub-arctic or arctic ? monogamy is the rule; however polygyny becomes extremely common in tropical climates In which of these types of climates are we more likely to see disease? Tropical Climates Look at tropical places where disease is most prevalent Didn?t find sororal polygyny, but found that women are not related Virus?s ? measles ? body?s immune system is fighting it away; but the virus is trying to fight back Virus ? if and when it goes to my sister; the virus is preadaptive to my body and spread disease to your sister; and younger brother; Indians and Amazonians ? incredibly high death rate from measles; by the time it gets to the fourth host, the chance of death by this virus is 16 times greater Sororal Polygyny ? males married to sisters ? more likely to pass on virus and more likely to die, women who are not related the body will try to fight the virus off Polyandry ? rare type of marriage Tibet, Northern India, Sherpa (guides and packers) Women married to more than one man ? two or more (co-husbands) Interesting about this the co-husbands are brothers Advantage: double the chance of spreading the genes Fraternal Polyandry co-husbands are brothers One brother might leave for a few months and other brother has a child; they share 50% of genes Mosuah ? China ?Walking marriage? The woman decides when she will marry, her decision is shared with her kindred ? socially approved right of transition ? transition from single to married; if they say yes then the ceremony takes place; couple of months ? husband walks away from the woman, community, and any obligations he has as her spouse; the woman can marry again, she takes another spouse, and after a short period of time, he too walks; woman can marry again, again, and again Cohabitation of spouses ? the married spouses live together; remove cohabitation as a requirement and look at marriage as the socially right of transition; right to intimate access to their spouse; intimacy is important; walking marriage ? the father is not on the scene because years ago he walks Exclusive right of intimacy with spouse and sharing of resources When she delivers a child, resources flow in the direction of mother?s brother and mother?s brother will take care of woman and child Women inherit land, not men Gene pool has to deal with the children that are biologically their own Men are employed as laborers; they earn cash and is channeled back to their sister Same sex marriages 4 states Socially approved, right of transition, where they have access to intimate relations, share resources, as well as death Kinship Who can we marry Not a culture known that has prohibitions of the incest taboo Egyptians ? incestual marriages to keep the purity of blood Certain cultures at times, parents decide Arranged marriages Parents decide who the child will marry before the time of right of transition Margery Wolf This type of marriage in Japan ?Major Marriages? compared to ?Minor Marriages? Former you have made these decisions long before the right of transition ?Minor marriages? ? choice of the man and woman to become married, emotionally attracted to each other, enjoy being in each other?s company. In which of these cases do you think you see infidelity: Major Divorce: Major Familiarity breeds contempt If you?ve known someone since you were a child, you aren?t attracted to them Ex. Jewish Communities Kibbutz Exogamy ? marrying outside of your kindred Very widely in many cultures in the world; anthropologists call them clans ? unilenial consent groups; you inherit clan through mother or father Ex. Cherokee ? 7 different clans; each is matraclan ? receive the clanship of your mother; father must be of a clan other than what your mother belongs to Matraclans ? 1827 white man by the name of Samuel Dent; married to a Cherokee woman Dent was an abusive spouse; Cherokee wife died unexpectedly; Cherokee suspected foul play and sought revenge against him for the death of his Indian wife Fled and went to Savannah, GA; purchased an African slave by the name of Molly Returned to Cherokee; mountains of northern GA, East TN Approached representatives of the clan and presented this woman, proclaiming his innocence Discussion of Deer Clan; would this suffice? They decided it would and the woman was adopted into the clan She married a white farmer by the name of Tucker 2 children ? kids are in deer clan Molly?s Cherokee name: Chickea Whites outraged that Cherokee wouldn?t give her and her children to them for slaves 3 Broad Categories of Kinship Blood /Consanguineal Affinal ? to whom we are kin through marriage Mother ? in ? law Fictive ? individuals to whom we are related but ties are fictitious God parenthood Compadre ? co-father Comadre ? co-mother Ahijado ? to god child Seek out other members of community who have greater access to resources than we do, we approach them to take the institute of Compadrazgo Great deal of respect we ask you to take this institute of God parenthood Helps with school supplies, marriage expenses, help out with costs By helping with these expenditures, people in community view them as generous No genetic relation with the child How we categorize people of kinship Americans: aunt, uncles, their kids are our cousins In certain cultures, aunt, uncle, and cousin doesn?t occur Easiest system for us to understand is what we know as generational classification See this amongst Hawaiians Biological mother and father and everyone up in the parental generation carries the term of mother or father Interesting here: who can you marry? Can?t marry anyone who you refer to as sister or brother It promotes exogamy ? an individual must secure a spouse outside of their kindred Crow: father?s sister, female 2 generations younger than you; fathers and mothers marry; Rule of reciprocity ? No kinship chart on exam: understand however certain basic things Uncle aunt cousins ? not universal Categorize kinship is different amongst different cultures Bifurcate merging
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