Chapter 13 ? Organizational Culture Identify and describe the 7 functions of organizational culture Cooperation ? providing shared values and assumptions, culture may enhance goodwill and mutual trust, encouraging cooperation Decision making ? shared beliefs and values give orgs members a consistent set of basic assumptions and preferences. This may lead to a more efficient decision making process, because there are fewer disagreements about which premises should prevail Control ? culture serves as a subtle org control system, informally approving or prohibiting some patterns of behavior. Control in orgs is provided by three mechanisms: Market control mechanism ? relies on price, if results fall short of goals, prices (charged and paid to suppliers and employees), are adjusted to stimulate necessary change Bureaucratic control mechanism ? relies on formal authority. The control process consists of adjusting rules and regs and issuing directives Clan control mechanism ? relies on shared beliefs and values. These shared beliefs and values essentially provide a map that members can rely on to choose appropriate courses of action, derives from culture Communication ? culture reduces communication problems in at least two ways. No need to communication in matters of which shared assumptions already exist (go without saying) Shared assumptions provide guidelines and cues to help interpret messages that are received Commitment ? people feel committed to an org when they identify with it and feel emotional attachment to it. Strong cultures foster strong identification and feelings through beliefs and values that the employee can share with others Perception ? orgs reality is socially constructed, what an individual sees is conditioned by what others sharing the same experience say they are seeing. Shared beliefs and values influence this process by providing orgs members with shared interpretations of their experience Justification of behavior ? culture helps orgs members make sense of their behavior by providing justification for it. Identify and describe the six elements of organizational culture Values Values are deep-seated, personal standards that influence our moral judgments, responses to others, and commitment to personal and orgs goals. Bedrock of org culture, let employees know how expected to behave/acceptable actions Sharing of values key to development of successful orgs culture, sharing and acceptance of core values is strong culture Symbols Stand for or suggest something else (office assignment signal status, dress code suggest level of formality, logo influence customer/employee perceptions) Narratives Written and spoken accounts used by members of the org to make sense of their experiences and express their feelings and beliefs Story ? dramatize ordinary events within orgs in order to convey important cultural meanings. Combine truth/fiction, spread by mouth, and convey important values, basic themes (support/don?t support equality inequality, security insecurity) Legends ? more uplifting than stories and portray events that defy explanation by ordinary circumstances Myths ? dramatic unquestioned narratives about imagined events. Explain origins/transformation of things of great importance. Placed beyond doubt and argument. Ingrained integrity and truth but fake. Sagas ? describe heroic exploits performed in the face of adversity. Help perpetuate culture by anchoring the present in the past and lending meaning to the future. Intermix historical facts, justifications of past events, and wishful thinking. Celebrate founders/ideas. Heroes Company role models, highlight the values a company wishes to reinforce. Main characters of org narratives, can come from all levels Rites Combine cultural forms into public performance. Rites of passage mark important transitions Rites of enhancement celebrate accomplishments of members, enhancing their status Rites of integration bring people together to revive shared feelings that bind and commit them to the org Rituals Relatively simple combinations of repetitive behaviors, often carried out without much thought and often brief in duration. Guide behavior in daily org life. (how greet, visitors met, food, phone). More important for their expressive, emotional consequences than for more practical reasons Identify and describe the ten strategies for assessing the culture of an org Look around, what do the headquarters and other buildings look like? How are people dressed? Is there much interaction? Who is talking with whom? How does the place feel? Ask to see newsletters and other internal documents. What values are emphasized? Whoa re the heroes help up for praise? Are parties, celebrations, or other ceremonies mentioned? What sorts of things are discussed? Look at annual reports or other communications to those outside the firm. What face is being presented to the world? Ask, ?can you tell me anything about what the culture is like here? Are there any stories that people here tell about the firm?? Ask, ?What values are stressed here? How are they communicated? How are they reinforced?? Ask, ?Who is looked up to here?? See what you can learn about rites and ceremonies in the organization. What happens when people accomplish something? Are there rites of passage, such as promotions ceremonies and retirement parties? Are there regular get togethers such as holiday parties, social events, and company sporting events? Ask, ?What sorts of behaviors are expected and rewarded here? What sorts of behaviors are punished?? Ask people outside the firm what they think of it Check magazines, newspapers, and other sources to get clues about the culture of the organization Identify and describe the three strategies for deviating from the dominant culture of an organization Self-insurance ? going against the culture on the basis of ones credibility and acceptance in the culture. The more deviance required by the proposed action, the more credits have to be chased in on, and the more that must somehow be replenished. Culture insurance ? calls for the support of others with high status, particularly those known to be ?good soldiers? in the org. This spreads the risk of nonconformity among the ?old faithful? Counterculture clout ? lower stats people in the org can also provide the support needed to permit deviation from culture, as long as there are enough of them. Requires charismatic leader who is able to create new ideology and new symbols to weld a subunit into a counterculture. Often counterculture is granted some legitimacy, resources, and autonomy. In return, it agrees to follow certain rules and to limit the scope of its rebellion Identify and describe the seven recommendations for changing an organizations culture Understand the current culture ? must understand current culture in order to change Change at the right time ? must be a felt need, occur when problem, opportunity, or change in circumstances Value diversity ? orgs with many subcultures may have better chances for change, they select best subcultures of desired culture, nourish them, and diffuse them throughout the org. Employees who have been against it and have ideas are encouraged to share them Understand resistance to culture change ? must be recognized and dealt with Recognize the importance of implementation ? many changes fail because of implementation, don?t implement themselves, adequate human and financial resources be provided for implementation and those responsible must accept need for change and are motivated to pursue their task enthusiastically, top management support Use appropriate cultural forms ? Symbolic tools ? being present at meetings relating to the change and visibly spending time related to the values they preach Logos/slogans ? can be developed Rites ? can be modified to incorporate new values or new rites can combine elements of the old and the new Stories reinforcing the change can be publicized Give it some time ? focus on the horizon and recognize it takes time to reach it Define elements of new culture ( communicate ( realign org policies/practices to support ( use formal mechanisms to reinforce/transmit ( replace those who don?t embrace ( evaluate culture in firms mission Chapter 14 ? Organizational Change Define and differentiate between planned and reactive change Planned ? managers develop and install a program intended to alter orgs activities in a timely and orderly way. Instigated because managers anticipate the development of a force for change and thus seek to prepare the orgs to adjust activities with minimal disruption. Superior to reactive. Extensive and lengthy. Greater commitment of time and resources and additional expertise in formulating/implementing. Key is ability of managers to anticipate what is needed. Reactive ? managers simply respond to the pressure for change when it comes to their attention. Usually a piecemeal approach because managers are facing problems needing immediate action. Hurried and less expensive. Most effective in small/day-to-day problems. Minimal planning and best handled by managers when a problem occurs. Also good when external/internal forces are very rapid and cant plan Identify and describe the four major targets of org change Structural change ? altering a firms formal authority structure or job definitions. (Change in communication patterns, rewards given, how departmentalized, or decisions employees can make. Job enrichment, self-managing teams, and empowerment all involve structural change Technological change ? new method is used to transform resources into a product/service (robots in assembly line) Human change ? changing employee attitudes, skills, knowledge, or behavior. Org development relies heavily on human change Purpose or task change ? the goal of the org is change. Identify and describe the 5 common causes of resistance to change Self interest ? those who get job gain prestige while those who don?t get lose prestige, change may threaten skills, power, relationships, social status, and self esteem Uncertainty ? change bring uncertainty, resist change cause they cant see the future/affects, expect worst, preference for status quo Lack of understanding and trust ? not explained to those affected, lack of trust can also support resistance, based on who supports it Differing perceptions ? differences in opinion, see differently because of prior experiences and training Lack of tolerance for change ? grown into the way things are, may agree but still feel unwary about moving away form what they are use to Identify and describe the three elements of the rhetorical triangle and the specific strategies for overcoming resistance to change that support each element Logo Do your hw ? gather relevant facts that prove that a real problem exists, identify potential causes/pinpoint possible causes, describe problem/opportunity, its causes and need to something about it, alternative solutions and cost/benefits of each, communicate Identify sources of help ? who could help you sell change, idea champions, venture tams, and innovation departments may prove useful Anticipate questions and objections ? think about change from others point of view, identify questions and objections Sell the benefits ? sell in terms of others point of view, how will change make it better and avoid/reduce bad consequences, easiest to sell change when there is a burning platform (dramatic, vivid demonstration that the current situation is unacceptable) Use catalytic mechanisms ? use to reinforce change, help translate objectives into performance by making stretch goals reachable. Involve dramatic policy that turns normal corporate practice on its heard, requiring people to act in new ways that further the overarching corporate goal Listen in depth to concerns, questions, and fears Create an implementation plan that answers the key questions most people have when faced with change: who, what, where, when, why, and how Ethos People cooperate with a leader who as high credibility, a combo of competence and trustworthiness. Tend to believe someone who demonstrates expertise and authoritativeness, has requisite qualifications, and comes across as experienced, informed, skilled, and intelligent. Pathos Must attend target audiences emotional and psychological needs, if change threatens emotional safety/security, you may get little compliance. Get people involved in change, creates ownership. Facilitation and emotional support and by negotiating, compromising, and compensating the individuals for loss. Pay special attention to emotional needs and concerts and to their pocketbooks. Eliminating job but transferring to less desirable but higher paying job Manipulation and coercion Sometimes work but can hurt moral, positive working relationships, and trust Identify and describe the 11 strategies for managing difficult transitions in orgs Clearly explain the reasons for the transition: show how endings ensure continuity Unfreezing, show proposed change is preferable to current situation, must understand problem/opportunity, sell problem before situation, then explain how change will improve, especially important to show how change assures continuity Explain why the transition is occurring in the way it is occurring Minimize uncertainty: define what is over and what is not, don?t assume Identify who is losing what Acknowledge losses openly and sympathetically Expect and accept signs of grieving Provide fair compensation for losses ? not necessarily pay, show respect also Facilitate the coping of those with losses ? provide counseling, gradual transition, publicize reasons for termination, help with job search Mark the endings ? show symbols of worth Treat the past with respect ? rites of degradation, finding scapegoats for blame and implying that by banishing the scapegoat things will be better Plan for new beginnings ? not only loss but promise Identify and describe the 5 disciplines of a learning organization Personal mastery ? discipline of aspiration involved formulating a coherent picture of results that most people desire alongside a realistic assessment of the current state of their lives Mental models ? discipline of reflection and inquiry skills focuses on being aware of the personal attitudes and perceptions that influence thought and interaction Shared vision ? building a common sense of purpose, people learn to nourish a sense of commitment by developing shared images of the future Team learning ? discipline of group interaction requires reflecting on action as a team and transforming collective thinking skills so the team can develop intelligence and ability greater than the sum of the individual members talents Systems thinking ? involves understanding the language of interrelationships that shape the behavior of the systems in which people exist and thereby being better able to deal with the forces that shape the consequences of our actions Identify and describe the four major strategies for developing a learning organization Learning leaders Creative tension comes from recognizing the gap between where we want to be ? our vision ? and the truth about where we are ? our current reality. Generate creative tension without causing defensiveness means leaders must be able to see leaps of abstraction, to balance inquiry and advocacy to recognize the difference between the views that they espouse and those they act out, and to recognize and defuse defensive routines. Help others see big picture. Use small, focused actions, to produce significant, enduring improvements. Look beyond symptoms to underlying causes in the system Leadership communities People lead because they want to serve one another as well as a higher purpose. Executive leaders, local line leaders, and internal networkers Local line leaders ? significant business responsibility and bottom line focus. Units large enough to be meaningful, yet enough autonomy to undertake meaningful change. Create subcultures that may be quite different from the mainstream culture. Sanction significant practical experiments aimed at new learning capabilities to business results Internal networkers ? no positional authority, but bring change through conviction of ideas and clarity of ideas. Move freely, with high accessibility. Identify local line workers who have the power to take action/inclined to develop new learning capabilities. Link people of like minds in varied settings to one another?s learning efforts. Learning infrastructures Create virtual learning spaces/managerial practice fields in which learning arises through performance and practice. They connect the learning agenda to core management processes and business imperatives, involve key players, and respect freedom of choice permitting learning to occur in different ways Learning cultures Embodies new capabilities and is grounded in a reinforcing culture based on transcendent human values of love, wonder, humility, and compassion. Treats surprises as opportunities to grow and differing behaviors, assumptions, and viewpoints as valid. Recognizes limitation of our knowledge and perspectives and thus the need and opportunity for improvement Chapter 2 ? Individual Differences Identify the types of organizational policies and practices that are being implemented to value, reward, and manage workforce diversity effectively Training for tolerance Firms providing bulletin with diversity events in city. Providing training to integrate sexual orientation into ongoing diversity efforts. Many firms are gender training to promote tolerance between the sexes. Rewarding diversity efforts Some firms trying performance appraisal to their efforts to increase diversity. Attainment of workforce diversity goals, financial success, customer satisfaction, and environmental and safety improvements. This way, diversity is tied to bonuses and salaries. Changing employee attitudes toward diversity Workshops/training. Volunteer driven meetings that address the concerns of particular employees. Along with follow up programs Developing personal policies that support diversity To foster diversity, managers need to design diversity programs that include training, reward programs, and policies that nurture diversity. Identify and define the 10 important personality dimensions and discuss why each one is important Risk taking propensity ? people with different levels of risk taking propensity will make very different decisions in the same situation Proactive personality ? extent to which people take actions to influence their environments. Entrepreneurial activities, look for opportunities, high job performance Authoritarianism ? believe power and status should be clearly defined and there should be a hierarchy of authority. Expect unquestioning obedience to their commands, frustration if don?t follow leader. Most comfortable in orgs that emphasize rules and following chain of command Dogmatism ? closed-minded. Rigid belief systems and doggedly stick to their opinions, refusing to revise them in the face of conflicting evidence. Make decisions quickly based on relatively little info, and confident in those decisions. Follow rules and unlikely to follow novel alternatives. Perform good in well defined, routine situations, especially if time constraints, if creativity they do poorly Locus of control ? degree to which individuals believe the things that happen to them are the result of their own actions. Within control ? internal, lives controlled by fate/circumstance/chance ? external. Externals unlikely to believe they can do better if they try harder. Internals may be more highly motivated that externals. Internals shown likely to respond in more positive ways to stress than externals, to enhance in more ethical ways, to feel more empowered, and to be more entrepreneurial. Tolerance for ambiguity ? high - welcome uncertainty and change. Low ? see situations as threatening and uncomfortable. Important because managers facing dynamic unstructured situations Machiavellianism ? think any behavior is acceptable if it achieves their goals. Manipulate others, unemotional and detached. Look out for number one and aren?t likely to be good team players. Unethical Self monitoring ? extent to which people vary behavior to match the situation and make best possible impression on others. Type a and type b Type a ? feelings of great time pressure and impatience. Work aggressively, speak explosively, and find themselves constantly struggling. Don?t work well in groups, have trouble delegating tasks, impatient with tasks requiring prolonged problem solving, few rise to high levels in orgs Type b ? relaxed, steady paced, and easy going. The big 5 personality dimensions Extraversion ? outgoing and gregarious, dominant, and ambitious, adventuresome, positive emotions, many close friends, and take leadership roles Agreeableness ? trusting, caring, good natured, cheerful, and gentle. Significant where teamwork/customer service is important Conscientiousness ? hardworking and persistent, responsible and careful, well organized, higher levels of job performance, engage in fewer counterproductive work behaviors, and they are more satisfied, absent less often, and less likely to leave a firm Emotional stability ? best recognized by absence of anxiety, hostility, depression, self-consciousness, vulnerability, and impulsiveness. Emotional stability is positively related to job performance. Openness to experience ? intelligent, imaginative, unconventional. Do better than their opposites in learning new skills Identify and describe the perceptual biases/distortions associated with the perceptual process Selecting stimuli ? perceptual readiness ? more likely to see things if we are ready to see them, can cause failure to see big picture, choose different stimuli based on needs/personalities. Stimuli that contrast with surrounding environment. Organizing stimuli ? once selected they must be organized into a useful framework, things we group together tend to be recalled together, create whole Interpreting stimuli ? the way we translate the stimuli we have selected and organized depend on our situation, characteristics, and characteristics of what we are perceiving. Distortions: stereotyping, Pygmalion effect (creating something in the image we have it), halo effect (use general impression of what is favorable/unfavorable), projection (project own characteristics onto others), primacy/recency effects (start strong and finish strong, more weight on first/last things), perceptual defense (threatening info our perceptions change to make it not as bad) Identify and describe the work related influences on job satisfaction Work itself Challenge ? mentally challenging work that the individual can successfully accomplish is satisfying Physical demands ? tiring work is dissatisfying Personal interest ? is satisfying Reward structure ? rewards that are equitable and that provide accurate feedback on performance are satisfying Working conditions Physical ? depends on the match between working conditions and physical needs Goal attainment ? promote goal attainment are satisfying Others in org ? individuals will be satisfied with supervisors, coworkers, or subordinates who help them attain rewards. Also, individuals will be more satisfied with colleagues who see things the same way they do Org and management ? individuals will be satisfied with orgs that have policies and procedures designed to help them attain rewards. Individuals will be dissatisfied with conflicting roles and/or ambiguous roles imposed by the org Fringe benefits ? do not have a strong influence on job satisfaction for most workers Identify and describe the relationships between job satisfaction and turnover, absenteeism, and performance Satisfaction and turnover More satisfied workers less likely to leave. Job satisfaction doesn?t influence turnover directly. Indirectly though thoughts of quitting, intention to search for a new job, and intention to quit or stay. Satisfaction and absenteeism Cause productivity to drop by 2.5 percent for every 1 percent increase in absenteeism. 400 million person days are lost through absenteeism. Satisfaction and absenteeism are negatively related. 2 percent of satisfaction is associated with absenteeism. Much of absenteeism is unavoidable because of illness and family emergencies. Depends more on other pressures. Satisfaction and performance Satisfaction may indirectly influence performance, if rewards are fair they will be satisfied. Satisfaction as a consequence of performance rather than cause. Most companies don?t reward employees properly. Satisfied employees have better org citizenship behaviors (help other employees, say good things about work, accept orders without a fuss, protect org resources)
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