Humanism Introduction The ?Third Force? Reaction against Psychoanalysis Pathology Irrational Unconscious Biological Behaviorism External determinants Exclusion of mental processes Reduction of ?meaningful? experiences Scientific emphasis, which: Treats people as objects of study Considers all people the same Rise of Humanism 1960s/1970s Period of social change Questioning of traditional approaches Emphasis on individual rights, openness Major figures Carl Rogers: psychotherapy Abraham Maslow: motivation, self-actualization; hierarchy of needs, steps to SA Gordon Allport: development Influences Phenomenology Edmund Husserl (1859-1938) World is best understood by how other people see the world around them Phenomena: world as perceived Noumena: world as it is ?meaning? resides only in the subjective experience of events How you judge experiences vs. how they really are Gestalt School (1890s-1920s) Structuralism: ?mental chemistry? try to understand thoughts by breaking holistic approach to perception, rather than structural approach Saw humans as active processors/organizers, not passive receptors Kurt Lewin (1920s-1940s) Father of ?social psychology? Trained by Gestalt psychologists Applied Gestalt theory to social functioning Kurt Goldstein (1920s-1940s) Neuropsychiatrist Studied/treated brain in injured soldiers Developed holistic approach Principal Features of Humanism Unity/integrity of personality Holism: the whole is greater than the sum of its parts Motivation: self-actualization Self-determination: we determine our own actions Idiographic method: aka case study, study of the individual ?Humanism? has other meanings Social/philosophical humanism ?good for humanity? E.g. Skinner, Ellis were Fellows in the American Humanist Association, even though they were not psychological humanists E.g. most religious organizations work for the betterment of humanity Political ?secular humanism?: humanistic approach that denies a religious basis Critics argue that this is itself a religious approach Abraham Maslow Introduction Studied at Wisconsin Reacted against the structuralism (mental chemistry) of Wundt, Titchenor Most known for Needs Self-actualized Dynamics Two sets of needs Basic needs (Deficiency needs, ?D-Needs?) Physiological (food, drink, sleep, etc.) Safety (security, protection, roof, etc.) Belongingness and love Esteem (self-and other-evaluation) Notes Basic needs must be met in order If unmet, person will suffer Metaneeds Also called: growth, being, or ?B-needs? Curiosity Aesthetic needs Self-actualization Notes Can only be met if D-needs are met Do not have to be met in any particular order People do not suffer if unmet; instead, will simply not be self-actualized Characteristics of the self-actualized Perceive reality accurately, efficiently Accepting of themselves, others, and the world Spontaneous and natural Concerned with problems outside themselves Autonomous Need and desire solitude, privacy Freshness of appreciation of experience Identification with humanity as a whole Creative, inventive Thoughtful, philosophical Peak Experiences Some self-actualized have peak experiences Momentary, intense, B-value state Peak experiences are Ineffable (indescribable) Transient (momentary) Passive (cannot attain intentionally, but occurs as byproduct of experience) Mystical (feel sense of awe, higher power, oneness with the universe) More on peak experiences Become most important thing Speak language of Being (poets, mystics) Perceive sacrally (the sacred in the secular) Consciously, deliberately metamotivated More responsive to beauty More holistic Less ?happy? than others; while rapturous, also prone to cosmic sadness Innovators; creative ?reconciled with evil? Note McGregor (1960) Motivation theory, often cited in I/O psychology Theory X: traditional view Dislike work Must be controlled Punishment, reinforcement Theory Y: humanistic view Work is as natural as play Self-directed Theory Z: Maslow?s term, for peak experiencers Research Methods Idiographic method (individual cases) E.g., biographies of self-actualizers Personal orientation inventory (POI) Personality questionnaire, to identify self-actualizers Evaluation Important focus on the healthy Research limited Few specific applications Carl Rogers Introduction Therapist Ideas developed from clinical experiences Trained in Freudian psychotherapy, but felt differently about therapy Active listening, bedside manner Pragmatist Criterion for judging therapy: does it work? Tried to develop a simple, useful approach that could be analyzed scientifically Structure of Personality Phenomenal field: one?s unique perceptions of the world and one?s experiences Self: one?s perceptions of oneself From one?s experiences Perceptions of one?s experiences Other?s reactions Self ideal: the self-concept one would like to have Relationship between self and self-ideal crucial tries to reduce gap between the two Dynamics Basic motivation; self-actualization Assumes people have basically good nature Drive to actualize their nature Two needs Positive regard: to be valued, respected by others Self-regard: to be valued by oneself Positive feedback that matches child?s positive nature = healthy self-regard/development Development Two types of conditions Unconditional Positive Regard: acceptance of another person?s worth, regardless of the circumstances Promotes health! Rogers assumes good nature and that respectful, caring feedback is given Healthy psychological development dependent on positive regard from others, not just parents Conditional Positive regard: acceptance of another person?s worth only under certain conditions Healthy development: UPR Children are basically good Feedback is consistent with their nature They can develop their true, good nature Unhealthy development: CPR Feedback is that they are good only when they meet certain conditions They develop conditions of worth, seeing selves as worthy only when they meet others? conditions Their development is ?twisted? in that they now try to fulfill others? conditions instead of developing own true, good nature Normality/Abnormality Psychological health: congruence between Self (as perceived) and Ideal Self Self (as perceived) and Actual Experience Phenomenal field (world as perceived) and External Reality If one only received UPR, one will never develop conditions of worth, and one?s perceptions of self and one?s experiences will be accurate Self-actualized persons Characteristics of self-actualized persons: More fully open to experience Live in existential fashion ? in the moment Trusting of own experience ? not swayed by others Unafraid of feelings More creative ? spontaneous, open Self-determined - autonomous Abnormality Characterized by incongruence E.g. discrepancy between self and self ideal may lead to Depression: despairs over trying to attain ideal Anxiety: dissatisfaction over not attaining ideal Anger: frustration from not attaining ideal E.g. discrepancy between perceived self/work and actual self/world may lead or ineffective behavior Psychotherapy ?active ingredient? is UPR ? relationship in which client welcomed and accepted regardless of their actions Condition that fosters healthy development Caring, accepting relationship Content of sessions less important than the client-therapist relationship Client-centered Therapy: Rogers? term Also called Non-directive Therapy Rogers believes this type of therapy can eliminate abnormal behaviors; there is no specific goal or technique used in therapy Therapy Conditions sufficient for growth Two persons in psychological contact Client is in state of incongruence Therapist is congruent Therapist experiences UPR for client Therapist experiences and communicates empathetic understanding Client perceives this acceptance and understanding These six conditions are often summarized in terms of three therapeutic qualities Genuineness Warmth Empathy Techniques Open-ended questions ? do not limit the depth of the client?s response; allow them to continue on in whatever direction they want Reflection of feeling ? client may be expressing some kind of emotion and therapist reflects on that; may seem mechanical/forced, but it is actually natural and helpful; demonstrates empathy, acceptance Paraphrasing ? indicated therapist?s understanding and interest; useful for clarification Interpretation ? not uncommon in treatment; Rogers follows closer to cognitive development Notes ?active listener? Cannot use these mechanically Research Congruence and Normality Q-sort Methodology: rate self and idea self on set of traits (rate a list of descriptions); measures relationship between a person?s self and self-ideal Why a ?sort?? Traits were on file cards. Subjects sorted the cards into groups according to how closely each trait described the self Therapist variables Truax and Carkhuff: developed scales to measure genuineness, warmth, and empathy; 1-12 point scale; ratings made individually In general, therapy is more effective as genuineness, warmth, and empathy increases Evaluation of Rogers Heuristic value ? theory can be applied Generated more empirical research support than any other theory discussed to date Parsimonious Some concepts vague/imprecise (e.g. assumption of good nature) Some concepts na´ve (e.g. idea that a child can only receive UPR) Trait vs. Type Theories Introduction Concept distinction Important historically Significant methodological implications Types Categories Mutually exclusive, non-overlapping E.g. Type A: achievement-oriented; Type B: laid-back E.g. Sheldon?s somatotypes: Mesomorph ? hard, strong Ectomorph ? thin, frail Endomorph ? soft, round Problems Are groups truly exclusive, non-overlapping? Often, people exhibit different characteristics in different settings So, more popular today are trait theories Traits Dimensions (2 poles or ends) Continuous (can be at any level on the dimension) Normally distributed More focus ? more research/statistics Notes traits of most personality theories today Can represent different theoretical perspectives (psychoanalytic, humanistic, etc.) Most trait theories identify small number of fundamental traits Allport/Cattell are trait theorists who used different methods to identify/conceptualize traits: Allport: humanist Cattell: mathematical Gordon Allport Introduction Midwesterner Common sense Pragmatic Humanist Today, more known for the issues he raised concerning personality than for his theory of personality Issues regarding personality Definition of personality Elements of a theory of personality Meaning of ?trait? Measurement of traits through everyday behavior Note: text presents Allport as a ?trait? theorist. This is a bit misleading, since it may lead people to think that his focus was on traits rather than the ?whole person.? Allport preferred to be called a ?humanist? rather than a ?trait theorist.? Illustrates concept of trait to people in everyday language Idiographic method: thought this was most effective way to evaluate personality Trait Definition: a generalized and focalized neuropsychic system peculiar to the individual, with the capacity to render many stimuli functionally equivalent, and to initiate and guide consistent (equivalent) forms of adaptive and expressive behavior; key idea: functionally equivalent ? e.g. aggression in sports, driving, work; environments and actions are different, but functionally equivalent; regardless of environment, you are going to express functionally equivalent behaviors Neuropsychic system Traits are ?real? Exist within the brain, mind Peculiar to the individual Unique Capacity to render stimuli functionally equivalent Perceive different stimuli in same way Consistent forms of adaptive and expressive behavior Respond to different stimuli in same way Types of traits Cardinal/central/secondary Cardinal Fundamental Almost all one?s behavior can be traced to it E.g. Hitler: power-seeking Central Highly characteristic of an individual Less important than a cardinal trait Secondary Limited/focalized Note: distinguish among these levels by considering the generality (number of situations in which the trait is expressed) of the trait Common/Personal Common Traits shared by others E.g. introversion, anxiousness, dependency Personal Unique to the individual Allport considered these the more important Development Proprium: ?what is peculiarly ours? ? Allport believed the self is constantly changing; it is difficult to explicitly pinpoint personality Constant development Comparable to self (Rogers) and ego (Freud) Stages of development ? not on exam, but need to know propriate striving Resemble those of Erikson/Piaget Development is a process: becoming Bodily self (infancy ? differentiation of body from world around it) Self-identity (infancy ? consistency of cognitive self) Self-esteem (toddlerhood ? more aware of environment and parents? dis/approval) Self-extension (preschool ? concerned with possessions) Self-image (early elementary school ? social roles) Self as Rational Coper (elementary to middle school ? problem solving, realistic thinking) Propriate striving (adolescence on ? behaving for intrinsic satisfaction, self-fulfillment) One of Allport?s most notable concepts Akin to Maslow?s Meta- or B-functioning i.e. functioning for intrinsic satisfaction rather than for external reward functional autonomy: behavior that is reinforcing in and of itself e.g., may initially hunt/exercise/study/etc. for regard. Later, may do these for intrinsic satisfaction for self-fulfillment Self as knower (adulthood ? capable of reflecting on and integrating experiences) Research Idiographic method Allport studied the individual E.g. Personal Structure Analysis:biographical analysis, using letters, personal history, etc. Limited nomothetic (group, empirical) research Study on Jenny Gove Masterson Expressive behavior Everyday behavior (handwriting, voice, posture) to infer traits Religiosity Religious Orientation Inventory (ROI) Distinguished extrinsic/intrinsic religious orientation Values Allport and colleagues developed scale called Study of Values (SOV) Assessed six types of values: theoretical, economic, aesthetic, social, political, religious Evaluation Much influence in terms of basic issues: meaning of trait, aspects of personality theories Applications to religion, values (e.g. causes of prejudice) Development as a process However, Allport?s personality theory has relatively little influence on contemporary psychology Victor Frankl Introduction Psychoanalyst Jewish Survivor of Dachau, Auschwitz Concentration camp experiences led to his model Considered existential Developed an optimistic and spiritual approach to humanistic psychology Existential psychology Stems from existential philosophy Addresses fundamental questions of existence Meaning of life Meaning of death Meaning of pain, isolation Emphases Freedom: free to make own choices Responsibility: responsible for those choices Phenomenology: individual?s unique perspective Influence of existential philosophy: psychologists were seeing more patients after WWII who struggled with their existence/meaning of life Assumptions Humans are free Holism Rejection of the unconscious Rejection of formal theories Opposes viewing people as objects Frankl?s major assumptions People are three dimensional ? physical, psychological, spiritual All aspects must be addressed. If not, a theory will be inadequate. If one does not address all aspects in one?s life, then one will be incomplete Spiritual side of person is real Freedom of will Humans are free Not free from conditions, but free to choose how to face conditions i.e. physical conditions will to meaning people are motivated to find meaning in life problems occur when one does not find meaning anxiety ? when one doubts that there is meaning guilt ? failure to take responsibility to find meaning existential neurosis: despair over the meaning of one?s life meaning of life find meaning through realization of values creative: accomplishing, contributing to world e.g. creating art, rearing a child, healing the sick experiential: experiencing, appreciating what is in the world enjoying art, appreciating nature attitudinal: through the attitude one adopts when facing an inevitable predicament Therapy Logotherapy: ?meaning? therapy Intended for people who experience problems with the spiritual dimension who have not found meaning Two specific techniques ? don?t serve purpose to help people find meaning, but they?re the ones he used Paradoxical intention: have client deliberately engage in the problem behavior E.g. stuttering, smoking, worrying Why? By detaching oneself from the symptom, PI helps client change attitude toward the symptom (i.e. no longer to be dreaded, avoided) Concern for having the symptom may actually produce the symptom; having client do action, it reduced anxiety surrounding it Dereflection: focus not on the disturbing symptom, but on something outside of oneself; person is monitoring themselves so closely that they cannot do action E.g. insomnia: person focuses on how awake/how tired they are while trying to fall asleep) Focusing on symptom heightens anxiety, which exacerbates symptoms Notes These two techniques are to be used only with a narrow range of symptoms Logotherapy is generally done using traditional talk-therapy Paradoxical/distraction techniques are suggested by many theoretical approaches. Just because they are effective does not mean that they work for the reasons why Frankl believed they work Evaluation Little scientific evidence Frankl would recognize this ? more of a philosophical, spiritual approach than a scientific one Limited application Logotherapy useful only for narrow range of problems However, when working with clients with such problems, logotherapy may be quite useful
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