1. According to Adler, which of the following brith orders has the least number of personality problems?a. First-bornsb. Middle-bornsc. Last-bornsd. Only children 2. Which of the following is a true statement about the collective unconscious?a. The collective unconscious consists of thoughts repressed out of consciousness.b. We acquire the collective unconscious from interactions with our parents.c. The collective unconscious is basically the same for all people.d. Both a and c 3. According to Erikson, adults who fail to develop concern for the development of young people suffer from a sense ofa. Reliefb. Despairc. Stagnationd. Disaster 4. One of the most important contributions to personality theory by Karen Horney was her view that neurotics area. Trapped in a self-defeating way of interacting with others.b. Insecure about their dreams.c. Really as healthy as any other individual.d. People who suffer from ?womb envy.? 5. Samantha is anxious about socializing with others and she acts so funny toward her peers when they invite her to go out with them that they have stopped asking. Which interaction style does Samantha display according to Horney?a. Moving toward peopleb. Moving away from peoplec. Moving against peopled. Moving without people 6. Much of the strength of the neo-Freudians contributions to our understanding of personality comes froma. The support they gave to Freud?s original theory.b. Their valuable influence on later theorists? views.c. Less scientific formality.d. Their comprehensive approach to all age groups. 7. Which of the following is not a key limitation to Freud?s theory?a. The idea that the adult personality is formed by the time a child is five or six.b. The idea that the ego defends against anxiety.c. Freud?s emphasis on instinctual influences on personality.d. Freud?s concentration on the negative parts of personality. 8. Rather than equate achievement with mental health, Adler argued that well-adjusted people strive for superiority through concern fora. Younger generationsb. Self-interestc. Social interestd. Their family 9. According to Erikson, a person in middle adulthood is most likely to be dealing with which of the following issues?a. Whether or not to take an active role in the lives of young people.b. Whether or not to commit to a romantic relationshipc. Whether or not to feel guilty about facing challenges.d. Whether or not to feel satisfaction with choices made in life. 10. Alfred Adler called his approach to personalitya. Individual psychologyb. Ego psychologyc. Feminine psychologyd. Authoritarian psychology 11. Which of the following is not true about the trait approach?a. No major schools of psychotherapy have evolved from the trait approach.b. The trait approach is the best approach for predicting change in personality.c. Most trait researchers do not focus on predicting behavior.d. Trait theorists place the most emphasis on identifying the mechanisms that determine behavior. 12. The trait approach is built on the assumption that personality characteristics are relatively stable over time and thata. Personality characteristics are relatively stable over situations too.b. Through trait descriptions we can make comparisons across people.c. The typical behavior of a person with one trait is different from that of another.d. While explanation is not possible, trait researchers focus on description. 13. In terms of personality development, Allport believed thata. Infants learn they have little control over their environment.b. Babies at birth have no concept of themselves as distinct from the environment.c. The child?s concept of ?self? develops from the genetic blueprint.d. Infants know from birth that their body is different from other objects. 14. Henry Murray proposed that each person can be described by a personal hierarchy of needs thata. He used to adequately predict behaviorb. Is used to compare one person?s needs to other?sc. Assists therapists in explaining one?s behaviord. None of the above 15. Murray referred to each environmental force that activates a need as a a. Triggerb. Repressorc. Pressd. Itch 16. According to Cattell, ______ traits ultimately constitute the human personality.a. Cardinalb. Sourcec. Secondaryd. Factor 17. Which of the following is not a factor among the Big Five?a. Psychoticismb. Neuroticismc. Opennessd. Agreeableness 18. Among the criticisms of the MMPI are questions abouta. The validity of the scalesb. The appropriateness of some of the norm datac. The nature of some of the constructs being measuredd. All the above 19. Which of the following is not a problem with self-report inventories?a. Scoringb. Carelessnessc. Fakingd. Response tendencies 20. Which of the following is true about the five-factor model?a. Few have criticized it for its lack of predictive value.b. Hypotheses about the origin of the five factors were generated after results of the research were seen.c. Trait theorists are better off focusing their research on the five main traits.d. Both b and c. 21. Which of the following is indicative of high need for Achievement?a. A student who is motivated to avoid failure on an exam.b. A businessperson who takes chances to get ahead.c. A gambler who will only bet on a sure thing.d. An employee who works hard at very boring tasks. 22. Good advice for parents who want to raise their children to have a high need for Achievement is toa. Continue giving encouragement and support in every activity the child undertakes.b. Involve themselves in all of the child?s interests.c. Not give the child rewards for personal accomplishments.d. Find a balance between encouragement and robbing the child ofinitiative. 23. Which of the following is true about gender and achievement?a. Women and men act similarly in achievement settings.b. Men and women differ in the way the define success.c. Women in our society are more likely to see success in terms of external standards.d. Men and women assign similar values to achievement tasks. 24. Research on Type A behavior began asa. A study of individual differences in personality and later became useful in applied areas.b. An important means of understanding social anxiety.c. A medical concept and later came under the study of academic researchers.d. An example of a defense mechanism. 25. Jerry and George work for an advertising agency in Chicago. Their employer has labeled Jerry as a Type A personality and George as Type B. which of the following is a likely difference between Jerry and George?a. George works harder than Jerry but does not receive as much reward for his work.b. Jerry deals with frustrating situations and aggressiveness.c. George believes that time is important and shouldn?t be wasted.d. Jerry does not procrastinate as often as George. 26. Which of the following statements is true about social anxiety?a. Socially anxious people recognize the source of their anxiety.b. Social anxiety can result from anticipated social interactions.c. We can identify a relatively stable tendency for people to experience social anxiety.d. All of the above. 27. Lisa frequently experiences nervousness in her job and can become angry when the pressures of her work increase. Which dimension of emotion is illustrated by Lisa?s behavior at work?a. Positive affectb. Negative affectc. Intensityd. Expressiveness 28. Which of the following is a reason why defensive pessimists deliberately take a pessimistic approach?a. To set themselves up for successb. To prepare themselves for failurec. To reduce the need to try harderd. To make themselves fear success 29. Which of the following is true about emotional expressiveness?a. The more expressive of emotions, the fewer problems in romantic relationships.b. Highly expressive people tend to have higher self-esteem.c. Women tend to be more expressive than men.d. All the above. 30. Which of the following is a possible reason for the relationship between social activity and positive affect?a. Social activity causes positive affect.b. People with high positive affect tend to make friends.c. People engage in social activity because of positive affect.d. All the above. 31. Jorge is facing a very difficult midterm exam and is feeling anxiety about it. As the exam date approaches and his anxiety increases, he starts thinking about ways to study more effectively and schedules a large portion of time for active study of the material on the test. In terms of coping, which of the following is Jorge strategy?a. Avoidance strategyb. Repression strategyc. Emotion-focused strategyd. Problem-focused strategy 32. Which of the following is true about the effectiveness of coping strategies?a. The more people rely on coping strategies, the more anxiety they feel.b. Active strategies are more effective than avoidant strategies.c. The use of a coping strategy is more effective in reducing anxiety than not using one.d. Avoidance strategies are generally more effective in the long run. 33. With regard to the frustration-aggression hypothesis,a. Most researchers today accept that aggression is always caused by frustration.b. It has been shown that aggression is always reduced catharsis.c. Frustration always leads to aggressive behavior.d. Most researchers today accept that aggression can have a number of causes. 34. When angry participants in a study were allowed to retaliate against someone who frustrated them,a. The participants?? blood pressure went up.b. Greater aggression was shown after the participants experienced a release of tension.c. Greater aggression was shown when there was no opportunity for cathartic release.d. Acting aggressively led to inhibition of further aggression. 35. In contrast to Freud?s theory, object relations theoristsa. Focus on internal drives and conflictsb. Are interested in the intellectual and emotion development of the infantc. Do not believe that children develop unconscious representations of significant objects in their environment.d. Are interested in the child?s relationship with his or her parents. 36. Which of the following statements would most likely be said by a person with an anxious-ambivalent style?a. ?I?m uncomfortable around other people.?b. ?It is easy for me to get close to people.?c. ?I?m worried that my partner doesn?t really love me.?d. ?Lovers often want to get more intimate with me than I want.? 37. Which of the following categories of adult attachment is best characterized by fear of abandonment?a. Avoidantb. Dismissingc. Anxiousd. Fearful 38. The effects of adult attachment style are most likely to surface when couplesa. Face stress in their relationshipb. Are traveling with friendsc. Recognize the qualities they admire in their partnerd. Have been separated for a time 39. Harold feels anxious whenever the cheerleaders at school walk close by. When some girls speak to him, he turns red and often can?t speak. Which form of anxiety is Harold most likely experiencing?a. Reality anxietyb. Neurotic anxietyc. Moral anxietyd. Superego anxiety 40. Psychologists often refer to a person?s general approach to coping asa. One?s coping styleb. A self-fulfilling prophecyc. One?s cathartic styled. Coping solutions1. B2. C3. C4. A5. B6. B7. B8. C9. A10. A11. A12. A13. B14. A15. C16. A17. A18. D19. A20. B21. A22. D23. B24. C25. D26. D27. B28. B29. D30. D 31. D 32. C33. D34. B35. D36. C37. D38. A39. B40. A
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