Extracurricular participants tended to have better grades. Time spent on homework correlated positively with time spent in the ECA. Glory sports associated with delinquency, whereas leadership, clubs and performing had lowest deviance.
Participant observation related to ECAs which found that specific ECAs related to specific status cliques, reinforced gender roles (football vs. cheerleading) and power differences between the sexes.
Breakfast Club identities showed gender role appropriate activities were related to higher status crowds. ECAs associated with specific characters. Sports exposed people to riskier friends than clubs.
Two dimensions of autonomy: 1. Interpersonal distance 2. Agency
Best to be related, but autonomous.
Expectation, Violation and Realignment (EVR) as to changes that occur in autonomy for adolescents.
Altered expectations and hidden violations can change outcomes.
Kerr and Stattin
What parents know is what teens tell them. Teen disclosure is more important than teen monitoring.
Most adolescents keep secrets, and degree of secrecy in adolescence indicates how well they're adjusting, e.g. many secrets implies poor adjustment.
Social Domain Theory. 1. Moral 2. Prudential 3. Conventional 4. Personal
Parents have a right to knowledge about prudential issues, but when they think a personal issue is in another domain it creates conflict.
What are the different methods of strategic disclosure? What is the most popular?
How high status clique leaders retain their position, maintain group norms, build alliances and manage membership.
Elmtown's Youth study that showed cliques were segregated down class lines, to the point that 60% of adolescent relationships were from within the same class.
The evolution of cliques based on heterosexual socialization. 1. Sex cleavage 2. Clique leaders incite intermingling 3. Affirmed by parties 4. Breaks down into couples
James S. Coleman
Proponent of and thus against youth culture; the idea that peer influence draws adolescents away from adult norms. Also had that triangle diagram about the perfect adolescent using three criteria: 1. Most popular 2. Brilliant student 3. Athlete
Newman and Newman
Thought the purpose of peer groups was to provide a group identification from which autonomy and self identification could occur.
The purpose of peer groups as a combination of many theorists' ideas: 1. Caricature (Newman and Newman) 2. Channel (Hollingshead) 3. Context (Coleman, Dunphy)
Crowd affiliation decreases post-adolescence.
Status hierarchies evolve throughout adolescence, becoming flatter and more diverse; e.g. starts with trendies and dweebs top and bottom, and then jocks, brains, toughs, etc. are introduced.
She contributed the idea of several parenting styles.
She refined the parenting styles down to two attributes, Reponsiveness and Demandingness. This produces a sort of Punnett Square of four possible styles:
They studied the effect of the four parenting styles provided by Maccoby, attempting to determine the best one.
As it turns out, it's authoritative which results in individuals high in achievement, engagement and self-confidence while low in deviance.
This does not necessarily follow in Asian and African American contexts.
Argued that the reason authoritative parenting might not work for Asian and African Americans is that our definition of authoritative might not be the same in the context of different cultures.
Following her father, she believes that adolescence is an inherently stressful period. This is due to puberty introducing parent-oriented sexual drives in the Id which conflict with the moral drives of the Super Ego. Thus, the Ego must resolve this through individuation, the process of refocusing those desires onto peers.
That Anna Freud's theory is false given she has seen stress-less adolescence in the Somoan girls. Although she kind of fudged this by mentioning that uncles were a respite from parents, implying stress.
He's a psychoanalyst that saw normal teens showing little conflict with their parents. Conflict in adolescence is usually preceded by conflict in childhood.
Hill and Steinberg
That family conflict peaks at the pubertal apex, the middle of puberty. They also found that as puberty progresses, four things happen: 1. Closeness to parents declines 2. Feelings of autonomy rose 3. Male acceptance of parents decreased 4. Female dislike of mother increased
Found that peer influence is only strong in certain domains and at its strongest around age 14 when the adolescent is just distancing parental influence.
Peer influence is strongest for day to day and social issues, whereas parental influence is stronger over more difficult or long term decisions.
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