Exam 2 Review
Last Modified: 2011-07-12
-no justice = no laws;incessantly seeking power;force and fraud are 'cardinal virtues';equal vulnerability to harm;war of all against all
2. Life in society under a common power and common laws
-motivated by fear for our self-preservation to seek peace in society, once in society we are motivated by fear of punishment
2. war of all against all
3. result of this war is that life sucks
4. motivated to seek peace in society from fear of death
5. build a social contract for peace
6. enforce contract with common power/law
- to seek peace and follow it
- to be willing, when other are also, to lay down our "right to all things" and be content with equal liberty
Benevolence: "arises from its tendency to promote the interests of our species"
Justice: we praise it for it's usefulness to society. only arises in medium conditions.
Aristotle: Virtue is a character trait that enable us to achieve the fulfillment of our essential human nature as rational and social animals.
Renunciation: (Kant) Our desires are either bad or morally indifferent
Affirmation: (HUME/Hobbes) Desires are good, but the means to get them can be bad
Hume: Desires=good, and although we can be selfish, our sentiment of humanity establishes a common lang of praise n blame; requires society
- Reason-based morality
- Duty over happiness
- Action-centered rather than character-centered
- A moral statement must be able to be made into universal law
- Must treat a person as an end in themselves as opposed to a means to an end
Categorical: What we ought to do irrespective of other purposes.
2. A duty is perfect if the violation directly conflicts with the duty to treat others as an end in themselves
2. A duty is imperfect if it's violation doesn't deny a person's right to be treated as an end in themselves (just because you don't do good deeds doesn't mean you view people as means to an end)
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