How does Hobbes differ from the Teleological basis of ethics and happiness?
Hobbes appeals to the idea of a social contract. Our happiness is completely subjective and is only our continual success in obtaining the objects of our desires.
How is Hobbes' view on human nature different than the classical philosophers?
HB's are naturally asocial, egoistic, competitive, and aggressive.
What are Hobbes' two conditions of HBs?
1. state of nature w.o society -no justice = no laws;incessantly seeking power;force and fraud are 'cardinal virtues';equal vulnerability to harm;war of all against all 2. Life in society under a common power and common laws -motivated by fear for our self-preservation to seek peace in society, once in society we are motivated by fear of punishment
How did we go from the state of nature to life in society? (6 points)
1. equally vulnerable to suffering harm by others. 2. war of all against all 3. result of this war is that life sucks 4. motivated to seek peace in society from fear of death 5. build a social contract for peace 6. enforce contract with common power/law
What does Hobbes believe are the main precepts of the natural law? (2 points)
to seek peace and follow it
to be willing, when other are also, to lay down our "right to all things" and be content with equal liberty
Why does Hume argue that morality should be based on feeling or sentiment rather than on reason?
Reason is the "slave of the passions." We are always moved by desire, while reason can only direct us to the objects of our desire an the means to obtain them.
What does Hume think is the sole basis of moral praise and blame? Why?
The "sentiment of humanity." We are by nature sympathetic with the happiness of others that we find it pleasing to observe the character traits of a person that are useful or agreeable to that person of to others.
Why does Hume think we praise the "social virtues"?
We praise Justice and Benevolence out of utility to the happiness of others. Benevolence: "arises from its tendency to promote the interests of our species" Justice: we praise it for it's usefulness to society. only arises in medium conditions.
How does Hume's understanding of virtue differ from that of Aristotle?
Hume: Virtue is a character trait in a person that gives a spectator a pleasing feeling of approbation. Aristotle: Virtue is a character trait that enable us to achieve the fulfillment of our essential human nature as rational and social animals.
Why does Hume say virtue is something that is either useful or agreeable to a person or to others?
Our sentiment of humanity makes us concerned with the happiness of others
How does Hume attempt to establish moral agreement through this spectator account of virtue?
Only the sentiment of humanity can serve as the basis for a common language of moral praise and blame because it is shared by all human beings and it extends to all HBs
Why does Hume think our praise of the social virtues are not based merely on socialization, nor can it be simply reduced to narrow self-love?
He argues that we're not taught the value of the soc virt bc if they weren't inherently present in our minds we'd have no concept of opposites of perception (honorable and shameful, etc.). It's not selfish bc we praise benevolent characters from fiction
What's Hume's critique of the monkish virtues?
They serve no manner of purpose, no help for fortune,utility,entertainment,or self-enjoyment. Stupify the understanding,harden the heart, sour the temper.
According to Hume, how should we be related to our given desires? (state all three ways)
Transformation: (religious folk) We need to transform our desires so that they guide us to human fulfillment Renunciation: (Kant) Our desires are either bad or morally indifferent Affirmation: (HUME/Hobbes) Desires are good, but the means to get them can be bad
Hume and Hobbes share an Affirmative stance on human desire. How do they differ?
Hobbes:Desires=good, but striving for those desires puts us in the war against all. Therefore we need a social contract. Hume: Desires=good, and although we can be selfish, our sentiment of humanity establishes a common lang of praise n blame; requires society
How does Hume address the issue of limited sympathy and benevolence?
It's not really a problem as long as everyone has some natural sympathy. Have to est a lang of morals, can only be done in mutually beneficial relationships of society. Also, "love of fame" makes us concerned with our reps
What are the 3 general features of Kant's account of morality?
Duty over happiness
Action-centered rather than character-centered
Why does Kant think morality should be based on reason rather than on feelings?
Feelings are too subjective to establish a universal moral agrement
Why does Kant prioritize moral duty over happiness?
Moral duty and happiness can be opposed and we should seek to make ourselves worthy of happiness. Deontology: there are certain actions that are good or bad in
themselves irrespective of any further ends they may help us to
How does Kant understand happiness
Completely subjective. Therefore, our happiness can come into direct conflict with the good of others
Why is Kant's approach to ethics action as opposed to character centered?
Because his perception for the basis of morality is our motivation behind doing good wills than anything else. Bullshit question.
Why does Kant say that the only thing good in itself is a good will that acts from duty?
It doesn't matter if a will produces some good consequence or because of its fitness to attain an end, but simply through its willing (from duty)
What are the two Categorical Imperatives?
A moral statement must be able to be made into universal law
Must treat a person as an end in themselves as opposed to a means to an end
Why must we act from duty, and not merely according to duty?
Because it is moral. It's better to do something be cause we know that it's the right thing to do, rather than do the right thing out of fear of the reprocussions of doing the wrong thing.
Moral duties are derived from reason alone and not from experience because...
Through reason we can make sure moral duties have an absolute or unconditional character. That way we know how to act in a completely original situation
What is an Imperative?
Command of reason that tells us what we ought to do
What are the two kinds of Imperatives?
Hypothetical: What we ought to do as a means to an end (If...then) Categorical: What we ought to do irrespective of other purposes.
How does Kant understand perfect duties from the 2 CIs?
1. A duty is perfect if it's violation cannot even be imagined as universal law (we can not even coherently think of a universal law where everyone has to lie) 2. A duty is perfect if the violation directly conflicts with the duty to treat others as an end in themselves
How does Kant understand imperfect duties from the 2 CIs?
1. A duty is imperfect if it's violation could be though of as universal, but it's impossible to will (I can imagine a world where noone does good deeds) 2. A duty is imperfect if it's violation doesn't deny a person's right to be treated as an end in themselves (just because you don't do good deeds doesn't mean you view people as means to an end)
Why do we need "rational consistency"?
Golden rule. From the universal standpoint I souled recognize others as having the same dignity as I ascribe to myself.
What is the Kingdom of Ends?
a community of rational beings who legislate universal laws for themselves and each other and who are to be equally respected respected as ends in themselves.
What is the importance of autonomy in Kant's moral philosophy?
To be rational is to be free and autonomous. We can only derive a moral philosophy through reason.
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