How does Hobbes differ from the Teleological basis of ethics and happiness?
Hobbes appeals to the idea of a social contract. Our happiness is completely subjective and is only our continual success in obtaining the objects of our desires.
How is Hobbes' view on human nature different than the classical philosophers?
HB's are naturally asocial, egoistic, competitive, and aggressive.
What are Hobbes' two conditions of HBs?
1. state of nature w.o society -no justice = no laws;incessantly seeking power;force and fraud are 'cardinal virtues';equal vulnerability to harm;war of all against all 2. Life in society under a common power and common laws -motivated by fear for our self-preservation to seek peace in society, once in society we are motivated by fear of punishment
How did we go from the state of nature to life in society? (6 points)
1. equally vulnerable to suffering harm by others. 2. war of all against all 3. result of this war is that life sucks 4. motivated to seek peace in society from fear of death 5. build a social contract for peace 6. enforce contract with common power/law
What does Hobbes believe are the main precepts of the natural law? (2 points)
to seek peace and follow it
to be willing, when other are also, to lay down our "right to all things" and be content with equal liberty
Why does Hume argue that morality should be based on feeling or sentiment rather than on reason?
Reason is the "slave of the passions." We are always moved by desire, while reason can only direct us to the objects of our desire an the means to obtain them.