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What is the difference between being obese and morbidly obese?
Obese: weighing 20% more than “ideal” body weight or having a BMI or 30+
Morbidly obese: 100 lbs or more overweight or having BMI of 40+
There are several types of bariatric surgery. All involve surgically reducing the size of what?
What is the rationale behind bariatric surgery?
If the stomach is smaller, you physically can’t ingest as much food, and therefore not as much will be digested.
Which organs make up the digestive tract?
Mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine
List the accessory organs that secrete enzymes and other chemicals into the digestive tract.
Salivary amylase is a digestive enzyme that is present in saliva. What type of molecules does it break down and what does it break it down into?
Carbohydrates into simple sugars
How is food transported from the mouth to the stomach?
Teeth mechanically process food, salivary glands break down macromolecules into subunits, tongue works food into a ball and pushes into back of throat, swallowed food goes down esophagus by muscular peristalsis, comes out in the stomach.
What is the approximate pH of stomach acid?
Give 2 reasons for the stomach being a very acid environment.
Pepsin is one of the major digestive enzymes of the stomach. What does it do?
Breaks down proteins into individual amino acids
What prevents the stomach from digesting itself?
A thick layer of protective mucus
How does an ulcer form?
The mucus in the stomach is damaged (perhaps by bacterial infection), and the stomach lining becomes more vulnerable to gastric juices. This forms an ulcer.
What are 3 things that the stomach can absorb directly into the bloodstream?
Water, ethanol, some drugs
What is the first part of the small intestine called?
Duodenum, which receives chime from stomach and mixes it with digestive secretions from other organs
How is the pH of the chyme neutralized once it enters the small intestine?
The pancreas secretes pancreatic juice (pH greater than 7) into the small intestine to neutralize the acidic chime (pH less than 7).
Breaking down lipids
What is the name of the major lipid –digesting enzyme? What organ secretes this enzyme?
Lipase, secreted by the pancreas
What is absorbed in the large intestine?
What type(s) of movement involve moving molecules from areas of higher concentration to areas of lower concentration? Does this require energy?
Diffusion moves molecules from areas of higher concentration to lower. This does not require energy, since this happens naturally.
What type(s) of movement involve moving molecules from areas of lower concentration to areas of higher concentration? Does this require energy?
Active transport moves molecules from lower to higher concentration. This does require energy, because it goes against the natural order of things.
How does a sterol, such as cholesterol, differ from a triglyceride?
Sterols have 4 connected carbon rings. Triglycerides have 3 fatty acid chains attached to a glycerol molecule.
Structurally, what do triglycerides and phospholipids have in common?
Both have fatty acid chains attached.
A macromolecule is a polymer (a molecule made up of individual subunits, linked together in a chain). They are large organic molecules (molecules with a carbon base). Macromolecules are composed of subunits (monomers) linked together in a chain.
What are the five functional traits that all living things have in common?
d. Sense and respond to stimuli
e. Obtain and use energy
List the 6 elements that make up the bulk of your body.
What is the difference between organic and inorganic molecules?
Organic: has a carbon-based backbone and at least one C-H bond. Inorganic: lacks C-H bond (though there can be carbon).
List the 4 major types of complex organic molecules.
Carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids
What are the carbohydrate monomers called? Give an example.
What are 2 general things that carbohydrates are used for?
1. Store energy
2. Provide structural support for cells
What are protein monomers called? How many types exist?
List several functions of proteins.
Speed up rate of chemical reactions, move things through and around cells, help cells move
Why is the three-dimensional shape of proteins important?
They do not function properly until they fold into it.
Are lipid molecules hydrophobic or hydrophilic?
What is another term for triglycerides?
Name two functions of triglycerides
Store large amounts of energy
Provide padding/thermal insulation
Which type of lipid is a major component of cell membranes?
Which type of lipid includes the molecule cholesterol?
What are nucleic acid monomers called?
What is the function of nucleic acids?
Store, transmit, and execute genetic instructions
What type of bond forms between neighboring water molecules? This gives water some unique properties. What is the difference between cohesion and adhesion?
Hydrogen bonds. Cohesion: water molecules stick to water molecules through hydrogen bonding. Adhesion: water molecules sticking to other surfaces through hydrogen bonding.
Solutions with a pH lower than 7 have more H+ ions. What are these solutions called?
Solutions with a pH higher than 7 have more OH- ions. What are these solutions called?
What are the 3 macronutrients?
Carbs, proteins, fats
Why is fortified peanut butter so good as a complete source of nutrition? [What macronutrients does it contain?]
It contains all the macronutrients so that you can get everything you need
Give 3 different types of chemical reactions in the body where enzymes are used.
Explain why enzymes are not “multi-purpose” (why each chemical reaction in the body uses different enzymes)?
Enzymes are not multipurpose because each enzyme has an active site that fits only one particular substrate molecule or molecules.
What is a difference between micronutrients known as minerals vs. those known as vitamins?
Minerals are inorganic; vitamins are organic
What is a similarity and what is a difference between a cofactor and a coenzyme?
Nonprotein components of certain enzymes are called cofactors. If the cofactor is organic, then it is called a coenzyme.
What happens to “blood sugar” that is not used right away as fuel for respiration in cells of the body?
Excess glucose is stored in cells as glycogen
Which organ of the body monitors and controls the amount of sugar in the blood?
When blood sugar is high, what does insulin cause cells to do? Which cells does insulin act upon?
Insulin causes liver and muscle cells cells to remove sugar from the blood.
What hormone is released when blood sugar is low? Which cells does it act upon? What does it cause the target cells to do?
Glucagon. It acts on liver and muscle cells. It causes target cells to break down stored glycogen into glucose.
What is overweight in BMI?
What is obese in BMI?
What 2 components contribute to obesity?
Biological history and cultural influence
What organic molecule is most energy dense?
How/where do we store excess sugars short term?
bound together as glycogen, which is stored in muscle cells and tissues.
How are excess sugar, protein, and fat stored long term?
once glycogen stores have been filled, excess energy is stored in form of triglycerides.
What are the starting molecules for aerobic respiration?
oxygen and glucose
What are the end products aerobic respiration?
carbon dioxide and water
Organelle aerobic respiration happens in?
Where does energy to make ATP come from?
chemical bonds of food molecules
where does fermentation take place in cell?
what 3 chemicals does a lipid profile include info on?
LDL, HDL, triglycerides
Give 3 attributes that contribute to a person’s daily energy needs.
Give 2 organs, the hormone they secrete, and the hormone’s function.
What causes Type 1 diabetes?
Pathological destruction of the insulin-producing cells in the islets of Langerhans.
How is Type 2 diabetes different from Type 1 diabetes? How is it similar?
Both Type 1 and 2 mean that there is a problem with production or response to insulin. Type 2 has cells that don’t respond to insulin, while Type 1 can’t make insulin at all.
Left untreated, chronic diabetes can cause a variety of health problems. Give 2.
Increased risk of heart disease and stroke, loss of vision
To which of the 4 major classes of biological macromolecules does insulin belong in?
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