EXAM 2 Review Sheet On this exam, more questions will come from information in the book that may not have been covered in lecture. These are the concepts with which you should be familiar for the exam: Attention- Constant need to monitor the events that are occurring in our external environment. Attenuation theory/cocktail party phenomemon- describes the ability to focus one's listening attention on a single talker among a mixture of conversations and background noises, ignoring other conversations. This effect reveals one of the surprising abilities of our HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Auditory_system" \o "Auditory system" auditory system , which enables us to talk in a noisy place. Late selection theory- All incoming information is identified or recognized at a level outside of phenomenal consciousness. After the information is identified, only the selected piece of information emerges into phenomenal consciousness. Rule rather than the exception, unlike attenuation theory. Attention and driving- Beede and Kaas had subjects use a hands-free version of a cell phone to focus on the question of how general attentional interference might relate to driving deficits. Engaging in cell phone conversations had a significant impact on every measure of driving performance. Chunking- Combining information into larger and large ?chunks.? Translate incoming information into a more manageable form. Pronunciation rate/time- The longer an item takes to pronounce, the fewer such items you can hold in STM. Pronunciation similarity effect- Lists of similar-sounding items are more difficult to keep track of in STM than are lists of different-sounding items. Proactive interference- When earlier information interferes with the ability to retain information that comes later. Retroactive interference- Later information interferes with the ability to retain information that occurred earlier. STM coding- Working memory is a number of closely interacting subsystems that combine to subserve a host of higher-level mental processes, including language comprehension, problem solving, and reasoning. Two of the subsystems incorporate notions of auditory and visual coding in STM. Central Executive- Final component of working memory, serves as the ?boss? of STM, supervising the operation of the other subsystems and carrying out important duties of its own. Thought to be responsible for the higher-level thought processes involved in reasoning and language comprehension. Phonological Loop- Made up of 2 subcomponents: a phonological store that holds information temporarily and an articulatory process, called the subvocal rehearsal mechanism, which allows for the rehearsal of information. Visual-Spatial Sketchpad- Responsible for the storage and manipulation of visual and spatial information and seems to operate independently of the other subsystem (the articulatory loop). STM v. Working Memory Characteristics of working memory- The processes involved in examining, considering, manipulating, and responding to internal and external events. Subvocal rehearsal- One of the two components of the HYPERLINK "http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1O87-phonologicalloop.html" phonological loop of HYPERLINK "http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1O87-workingmemory.html" working memory , functioning to keep information from decaying by mental repetition, and also translating visual information into phonological code where necessary for HYPERLINK "http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1O87-shorttermmemory.html" short-term memory . Stroop effect- The finding that the ability to name the ink color in which a word is printed is inhibited if that word is the name of a conflicting color. For example, if the word red is printed in blue ink, it?s quite difficult to name the ink color without suffering some interference. Selective attention- Selective attention theories have suggested that individuals have a tendency to orient themselves toward, or process information from only one part of the environment with the exclusion of other parts. Word superiority effect- The finding that it is easier if the letter had been presented in the context of a word, relative to when it had been presented in the context of a nonword. Demonstrates the importance of top-down processing knowledge retrieval. P 336 Bottom-up. V. top-down processing for a) object recognition, b) face recognition, and c) word recognition RBC theory- Object recognition is a matter of separating, analyzing, and recombining the features of whatever we?re looking at it. Template matching- How we recognize simple line patterns like letters. Our store of general knowledge includes a set of templates, or copies, of every pattern that we might encounter. When we encounter some pattern that needs to be indentified, the mind quickly rifles through its set of templates, and when a match is found, the pattern is given the label stored with the template. Hierarchical category levels- concepts are organized hierarchically, with specific concepts nested within more general ones. Hierarchical network model- Assumes an associative network of concepts and features that are organized hierarchically and economically. This model predicts the category size effect but runs into trouble with falsification RTs, reverse category size effects, false relatedness effects, and typicality effects. Memory Span- The longest string of information that a person can immediately recall. A measure of how many items can be held in immediate memory. P. 154 Functions of concepts- The mental representation of a category. Feature comparison model- Knowledge consists of a set of descriptions, or what might be termed feature lists. So, concepts are not nodes in a network but sets of semantic features that reflect the meaning of the concept. Problems: Doesn?t account for the category size effect, reliance on the distinction between the defining and characteristic features. Propositions- The smallest unit of knowledge that can stand alone and be declared true or false. It?s a mental representation of the relationship among people, objects, actions, and events. Fan effect- Difficulty in retrieving facts about a concept as more facts are known. Tip-of-the-tongue phenomena- Occurs when we?re fairly certain that we know the word we want to say but can?t come up with it. Blocking view v. incomplete activation- Blocking: failure in retrieving information stored in long-term memory. Functional equivalence v. proposition effect to imagery- Functional equivalence: images and transformations of images are functionally equivalent to percepts of real physical objects and their transformations. Propositionalist view: We need only postulate one type of knowledge representations-propositions-to account for cognitive processing in all situations, including those that ostensibly involve visual imagery. Functional equivalence (analog) approach ( Kosslyn?s research)- Much closer correspondence between visual images and perceived objects. P 378 Face recognition ? face inversion effect, wholistic processing Prosopagnosia- Inability to recognize similar faces. Characteristic and defining features- Characteristic features: those that are not essential; sometimes, these are termed accidental features. Defining features: those that are essential to the meaning of the concept. Ambiguous figures- Exemplify the fact that sometimes the same perceptual input can lead to very different representations. Again, the Gestaltist took this as suggesting that the mind was actively involved in interpreting the input. Semantic memory- refers to the HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Memory" \o "Memory" memory of meanings, HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Understanding" \o "Understanding" understandings , and other concept-based HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Knowledge" \o "Knowledge" knowledge unrelated to specific experiences. The conscious recollection of factual information and general knowledge about the world generally thought to be independent of context and personal relevance. Our database of general knowledge about the world. Typicality effect- The speed in verifying category membership is faster for typical members of a category relative to less typical members. True-false effect Category size effect- It should take longer to traverse the links from a subordinate-level concept (i.e., ?duck?) to a super ordinate-level concept (i.e., ?animal?) than do the same from a subordinate-level concept to a basic level concept (i.e., ?bird?). Semantic priming effect- Refers to the benefit in lexical decision that occurs as a function of the prime. Ex: people identify that the target ?robin? is a word faster if it preceded by the prime ?bird? than when the target is presented alone or preceded by an unrelated prime. Sentence Verification Task Cognitive maps ? mental models Spatial Framework Model Composition of cognitive maps
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