Exam 2 Study Guide
Last Modified: 2011-02-20
Related Textbooks:Biology: Concepts and Connections
Related Textbooks:Campbell Biology: Concepts & Connections with MasteringBiology® (7th Edition)
Intense volcanic activity, lightning, and UV radiation
Simple metabolism Simple homeostasis
Homeostasis and self-replication
:Prokaryotes lived alone on Earth for 1.5 billion
:Virtually all metabolic pathways evolved within
The eukaryotic cell probably originated as a
community of prokaryotes
Documents the main events in the history of life. Chronicles Macroevolution
Can gauge the actual ages of fossils and the rocks in which
they are found
Carbon-14 can date fossils up to 75,000 yrs old
Potassium-40, with a half-life of 1.3 billion yrs, can be
used to date volcanic rocks
Over the last 600 million years, five mass
extinctions have occurred in which 50% or more
of the Earth’s species went extinct
65 million years ago
– All dinosaurs went extinct
– cause was a large asteroid
– 96% of shallow water marine species died.
Extreme vulcanism in Siberia released CO2, warmed
global climate, slowed mixing of ocean water,
new species, whose adaptations allow them to fill
new habitats or roles in their communities
A rebound in diversity follows mass extinctions as
survivors become adapted to vacant ecological
Changes in genes that alter the timing, rate, and
spatial pattern of growth alter the adult form of an
Changes in these genes have led to the huge
diversity in body forms!
retaining juvenile traits into adulthood
:Natural selection results from the interactions
between organisms and their environment
:If the environment changes, apparent evolutionary
trends may cease or reverse
is the evolutionary history of a species
or group of species
Analogous similarities result fromconvergent
evolutionin similar environments
Woese: 3 Domain Classification 1) Bacteria. 2) Archaea. 3) Eukarya
Linnaeus: 5 Kingdom Classification 1) Monera. 2) Protista. 3) Fungi. 4) Plantae. 5) Animalia.
Family, order, class, phylum, kingdom, and domain
1. Gene transfer between a mitochondrial ancestor and
the ancestor of eukaryotes,
2. Gene transfer between a chloroplast ancestor and
the ancestor of green plants.
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