General Psychology Exam #2 Study Questions Sensation & Perception (Chapter 3) and Consciousness (Chapter 4) (the questions below are based on lecture notes; make sure you also study the bold face items in your chapter readings) Sensation & Perception (Chapter 3) 1. Pretend I knew nothing about the operation of sensory systems. Describe this process to me in a way that would be easy for me to understand. For example, what is meant by transduction? Receptors? 2. What is the difference between a detection threshold and a difference threshold? Provide examples. 3. How would you describe the concept of a ?just noticeable difference? to a friend? What kind of example would you use to illustrate the concept? 4. What is meant by the concept of ?coding?? What are feature detectors? 5. Describe the process of how physical energy is enters the eye, is transformed, and sent to the cerebral cortex. What is the difference between rods and cones? What happens to stimulus energy once it is transformed by rods and cones? When do we have a perception (i.e., an understanding) of the stimulus energy that has been transformed by rods and cones? 6. The color we see is determined by what? 7. Explain the trichromatic (i.e., Young-Helmholtz) and opponent-process theories of color vision. How have these two theories been combined to explain the process of how we see color? 8. What is the difference between sensation and perception? 9. Explain the concepts of bottom-up and top-down processing with regard to how we perceive things. Provide examples so your roommate could understand the concepts. 10. Explain some of the processes we use to organize our perceptual world (e.g., figure-ground, different ways of grouping). 11. What is meant by ?perceptual constancy?? Provide examples of size and shape constancy. 12. How is it that we perceive things as three-dimensional when our retinal image of a stimulus is only two-dimensional? 13. Describe the concept of motion parallax as a three-dimensional cue. 14. What is the difference between stroboscopic motion and the phi phenomenon? Questions ? Sensation & Perception (answers found at the end of the study guide): 1. When sensory receptors convert different forms of energy into neural signals, the process is known as: a. transluscent accommodation. b. transduction. c. sensory accommodation. d. transference. 2. Roy is a security guard at a department store. Roy?s boss just told him that he would lose his job if he did not start catching more shoplifters. Roy is now more likely to falsely accuse shoppers of shoplifting. In this example, Roy?s boss has influenced Roy?s: a. response criterion. b. absolute threshold. c. internal noise. d. sensitivity. 3. You are studying in a room lit by 25 watts of light. Your roommate yells at you to turn up the light, so you rotate the dimmer switch once and your roommate thanks you. Later than evening the light is at 90 watts and your roommate tells you to turn it up again. You again rotate the dimmer switch once (the same amount as you did before), but your roommate can?t tell that the light has increased. This example best illustrates: a. absolute threshold. b. internal noise. c. response bias. d. Weber?s law. 4. When Andrew had his hearing tested, some sounds were too soft for him to detect. These sounds were below his ______________ for hearing. a. difference threshold b. sensory (absolute) threshold c. Weber?s threshold d. subliminal threshold 5. Light first passes through which three structures of the eye? a. Pupil, iris, lens b. Cornea, iris, pupil c. Cornea, pupil, lens d. Fovea, iris, pupil 6. When looking at a dim star, it is best to look slightly away from where you expect to see it. This will cause the light to fall onto a part of the retina that has a higher density of ____________________ than the area involved if you were looking directly at the star. a. cones b. bipolar cells c. rods d. ganglion cells 7. Jake is nearsighted, and his cousin Janelle is farsighted. Their visual problems are caused by the fact that: a. images are not properly focused on the retina (images fall behind or in front of the retina). b. the cornea is clouded due to age or disease. c. the size of the blind spot has increased. d. the pupil no longer dilates in dim light. 8. According to the opponent-process theory of color vision, the types of color receptors are: a. red-green, blue-yellow, and black-white. b. red-blue, green-yellow, and black-white c. red, blue, green, and yellow. d. red, yellow, and blue. 9. While you are blindfolded, you are asked to identify the voices of five of your friends. You?re able to do so because you recognize the distinctive ______________ of each voice. a. amplitude b. loudness c. decibel d. timbre 10. Nerve deafness is caused by: a. damage to the eardrum or oval window. b. damage to the delicate nerve endings in the pinna. c. damage to the hair cells or auditory nerve. d. stiffening of the basilar membrane. 11. According to the gate theory of pain, what should you do after you stub your toe? a. Hold your breath b. Take an aspirin c. Rub the area that got bumped 12. When Arnie was sent to Afghanistan for military duty, he was issued a special camouflage uniform so that he would not be as readily visible against the rocky desert landscape. Camouflage is one application of the perceptual principle called: a. perceptual constancy. b. the law of proximity. c. the law of closure. d. figure-ground relationship. 13. Two identical model cars are parked at the far end of the parking lot. You are able to determine that one of the cars is closer to you than the other because it appears to be slightly larger, even though you know it is the same size as the other. This is an example of which perceptual cue? a. linear parallax. b. texture gradient. c. relative size. d. overlap. 14. If you look at a faraway street sign with first your left eye and then your right eye, the images look virtually identical. But if you look at your finger held just in front of your nose one eye at a time, the two images look very different. This phenomenon is an example of which distance cue? a. Binocular distance. b. Monocular disparity c. Linear parallax d. Binocular disparity. 15. When grading her top student?s term paper in an English literature course, Dr. Dickinson did not notice several spelling errors. However, she did not miss any spelling errors on her other students? papers. Missing her top student?s spelling errors might indicate that Dr. Dickinson was utilizing a lot of _______________ processing when grading papers. a. feature detection b. top-down c. bottom-up Consciousness (Chapter 4) 1. Describe the three levels of consciousness as discussed in class. 2. What is selective attention? How does effortful and automatic processing figure into the equation of what we attend to? 3. How is selective attention different from divided attention? Provide an example of divided attention. Can people easily divide their attention when performing tasks or does it depend on the nature of the tasks? 4. What is meant by an ?altered state of consciousness?? What are some characteristics of altered states of consciousness? 5. What is a good thing about daydreaming? Who spends more time daydreaming ? younger or older adults? What do young men oftentimes daydream about? 6. How does the amount of sleep one gets a night change from infancy through old age? How many hours of sleep does a typical adult get per night? 7. What are some theories as to why people sleep? 8. What is an electroencephalogram? Briefly describe the differences between alpha, theta and delta waves. What is the general principle regarding large and slow brain waves? 9. Describe the different stages of sleep. What stage is known as the ?transitional? stage from light to deep sleep? How do you know you are starting to enter a stage of deeper sleep? What happens after stage 4 sleep? Do you go directly back to stage 1? 10. What does ?REM? mean? Describe some of the physiological changes that occur in REM sleep. What is one of the most common things associated with REM sleep (i.e., what do we do during REM sleep)? 11. What is the difference between narcolepsy and sleep apnea? What is the difference between a nightmare and night terror? 12. What is a lucid dream? 13. Describe some of the general features of Freud?s theory of dreaming. What is the difference between the ?manifest? and ?latent? content of dreams? How is Freud?s theory different from the ?activation-synthesis? model of dreaming? 14. What is the difference between tolerance and dependence with regard to the use of drugs? Dependence is characterized by the three ?C?s?. What are the three ?C?s?? 15. Substances such as alcohol are classified as ?depressants.? What is a depressant? 16. What did McMillen find in his study with people who believed they had consumed alcohol prior to driving a car? 17. In low doses, ecstasy acts as a _______________________. In high doses, it as a mild ___________________________ effect. 18. Some of the bad things about marijuana are that it affects a person?s ability to _______________________________ and also negatively affects memory. Questions ? Consciousness (answers found at the end of the study guide): 1. Andrew just realized that he forgot to attend a study session with his friends last night. Immediately prior to this realization, the information about the study session was in the __________________ level of Andrew?s awareness. a. conscious b. preconscious c. unconscious 2. The presence of sleep spindles and K complexes are the defining characteristics of: a. narcolepsy. b. stage 2 sleep. c. night terrors. d. REM sleep behavior disorder. 3. Mary is having trouble waking up her napping roommate. When her roommate finally does wake up, she is very disoriented and confused. Mary?s roommate was most likely in ___________________ sleep just prior to awakening. a. stage 4 b. REM c. paradoxical d. stage 2 4. On the average, each complete cycle through the stages of non-REM and REM sleep lasts about: a. 20 minutes. b. 1 hour. c. 90 minutes. d. 3 hours 5. Evan is attending a very invigorating study session with his friends. Immediately after discussing a controversial issue, Evan falls asleep. Evan is most likely suffering from the sleep disorder known as: a. narcolepsy. b. REM behavior disorder. c. sleep apnea. d. insomnia. 6. Brenda suffers from a condition in which her airway becomes blocked during sleep and she cannot breathe. As a result of this condition, Brenda wakes up dozens of times each night and feels tired throughout the course of the day. Brenda is most likely suffering from: a. narcolepsy. b. sleep apnea. c. REM behavior disorder. d. night terrors. 7. Wally awoke screaming, shaking, and sweating, and his heart was beating rapidly. Ward and June, being good parents, had Wally hooked up to an electroencephalogram (EEG). Checking Wally?s EEG, they noted that Wally was in stage 4 sleep just before he awoke. From this information, they felt confident in saying that Wally had just experienced a(n): a. nightmare. b. lucid dream. c. night terror. d. episode of sleep apnea. 8. Last night Sally had a dream about a house burning down. Which of the following is not consistent with theories of dreaming? a. Sally unconsciously wishes to burn her house down. b. Sally?s dream is a byproduct of random electrical activity in her brain. c. Sally?s house is likely to burn down soon. 9. Darrin has gradually increased his intake of cocaine over a period of time to obtain the same effect he did originally. This is characteristic of: a. happiness. b. withdrawal. c. psychoactive expectancy. d. tolerance. 10. Johnny gives Ted a drink, telling him it is fruit punch with a tasteless alcohol in it. In actuality, it has no alcohol, but within an hour Ted becomes more aggressive and wild. Ted is experiencing the effects of: a. alcohol. b. tolerance. c. withdrawal. d. learned expectations. 11. Which of the following effects would you least expect to experience if you had ingested a large amount of alcohol? a. Increased alertness b. Memory problems c. Reduced motor coordination d. Reduced inhibitions 12. Research indicates that marijuana use is associated with all of the following except: a. severe withdrawal symptoms. b. motor impairment. c. reductions in creativity. d. lasting impairments in reasoning and memory. 13. Matt has just taken a drug that acts very similar to his body?s own endorphins. Matt has most likely ingested: a. alcohol. b. opium. c. LSD. d. marijuana. Answers to questions: Sensation and Perception 1. Sensory receptors ? b 2. Roy ? a 3. Light wattage ? d 4. Andrew ? b 5. Light ? c 6. Dim star ? c 7. Jake & Janelle ? a 8. Opponent-process ? a 9. Blindfolded ? d 10. Nerve deafness ? c 11. Gate theory ? c 12. Arnie ? d 13. Cars ? c 14. Street sign ? d 15. Dr. Dickinson - b Consciousness 1. Andrew ? b 2. Sleep spindles ? b 3. Mary ? a 4. Cycle ? c 5. Evan ? a 6. Brenda ? b 7. Wally ? c 8. Sally ? c 9. Darrin ? d 10. Johnny ? d 11. Alcohol ? a 12. Marijuana ? a 13. Matt - b MTSU General Psychology
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