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Socialinstitutions, organizations, groups, statues and roles, values, and norms thatadd order and predictability to our private lives
anyinstitution in a society that works to shape the behavior of the groups orpeople within it.
degree towhich jobs are specialized
Societyof hunter/gatherers has low division of laborUnited states has high division of labor with specializedoccupations
potential forsociety’s long term ruin because of individuals’ tendency to pursue their ownshort-term interests
tendency forpeople to not contribute to the common good when a resource is availablewithout requiring any personal cost or contribution
why Americansare afraid of the wrong things
-Smallscale issues cause a big frenzy
-Whyare our fears misplaced?
-Createopportunities to manipulate fear and insecuritiesImmense power/money await those who tap into ourmoral insecurities
a condition bywhich a dominant group uses its power to elicit the voluntary “consent” of theamasses
The media effects people in ways that areintended or unintended as well as short-tern or long-term.
The media releases stories that sometimesare blatantly racist but other times they just contain racist undertones.Sexism is in the media by ways of advertisements with very attractive femalemodels.
There are 6companies that own 90% of the media. These companies basically control what wesee and when we see it, related to the media.
the steadyacquisition of material possessions, often with the belief that happiness andfulfillment can be achieved.
roles ofeducation system are socialization and social reproduction
- Teachappropriate behavior
- Preparestudents for labor market
inadequatereading and writing skills needed to manage daily living and employment tasks
the wayssocial institutions help perpetuate social and economic inequalities acrossgenerations.
- Attendinga prestigious school matters
- Chancesyoull have a college degree
behaivors andattitudes taught in schools that are not in the formal curriculum
-Passiveconsumption of ideas (accept ideas given to you)
-Acceptexisiting social order
a society thatbases status and mobility on individual attributes, ability, and achievement
socialinstitutions that governs production, distribution, and consumption of goods,services, and raw materials
40 millionworkers – 30% of the US workforce. Two subgroups of the creative class:
- Super-CreativeCore = 12% of all US jobs. Considered innovative, creating commercial products and consumer goods
-CreativeProfessionals = draw on complex bodies of knowledge to solve specific problemsusing higher degrees of education to do so.
Introductionof new farming technologies that increased food output in farm production
economicsystem in which property and goods are owned privately
potential forsociety’s long-term ruin because of individuals’ tendency to pursue their ownshort-term interests
a condition inwhich people are dominated by forces of their own creation that then confrontthem as alien powers
wage paid tomale workers sufficient to support a dependent wife and children
a businessdecision to move all or part of a company’s operations overseas to maximizecosts
organizationthat forms when workers formally unite with the common aim of collective bargaining
a company’sassault on its workers’ union with the hope of dissolving it
use of powerperceived as legitimate
-Traditionalauthority = authority based on appeals to past tradition
-Legal-relationalauthority = a system of authority based on legal impersonal rules; the rulesrule
Legal-rationalorganization or mode of administration that governs with reference to rules androles and which emphasizes meritocracy
the process ofmaking work consist of specific, delimited tasks
methods oflabor management introduced by Frederick Winslow Taylor to streamline theprocesses of mass production in which each worker repeatedly performs onespecific task
Yalepsychologist devised test to see how far people would go to follow authorityfigure (electric shock experiment)
our structureof political system. Winner will rule with 50% + 1 votes cast. Plurality rulesnNOT majority.
- Narrowsour political spectrumDiminishes impact of “third parties
– Systemin which state is responsible for the well-being of citizens
- Pluralist Model – analysis of politics that views poweras dispersed among many competing interest groups
- Power EliteModel – view that political power is concentrated among wealthy andpolitical elite
- 1st = visible power when different agendas clash, conflictresults, and one side prevails.
- 2nd = when power is soformidable that resisting it seems pointless
- 3rd = preserve not onlyvisible resistance but prevent such conflict from arising in the first place
Form ofgovernment that restricts the right to political participation to a small groupor even to a single individual
- structuredsocial inequalities or systematic inequalities between groups of people thatarise as intended or unintended consequences of social processes andrelationships
- Estate: politically based system ofstratification characterized by limited social mobility
- Caste:hierarchical stratification based on ascription
- Class:based on wealth, income, education, occupation.
an individualsposition in an stratified social order.
- Incomevs. Wealth
o Income = money received by a personfor work or from returns on investments
o Wealth = a family’s or individual’snet worth (that is, total assets minus total debts)
the movementbetween different positions within a system of social stratification in anygiven society.
a measurementof social mobility where an individual’s class position is compared to his orher parents’ class position
a conditionwhereby no differences in wealth, power, prestige, or status based onnon-natural conventions exist.
Working classand poor class are:
Less likely togo to college
More likelyfor arrests, convicted, and go to prison and receive the death penalty than theupper classMore likely to die prematurely from accidents,homicides, or bad health care
Risk of deathgoes up when income goes down
Rich peopleexperience better health, education, nutrition, safer neighborhoods, andworking conditions than do poor people
Classinequality threatens political democracy
Cannot havepolitical equality amidst economic inequality
o Highest rewards (salaries) go to mostimportant positions in society ensuring the most qualified people occupy thesepositions
o Stratification reflects unequaldistribution of power in society that serves the interest of those at the top
- economicallybased system of stratification characterized by relative categorization andsomewhat loose social mobility.
the workingclass. Sells labor to the bourgeoisie in order to receive wages and therbysurvive.
the capitalistclass. Extract surplus value from the proletariat.
wealthiest 20%of u.s. households own 85% of the nations wealth
wheneversomeone dies all their wealth should be taken and stored in a warehouse. Once ayear all the wealth will be distributed equally among all the citizens in thecountry so that it doesn’t not accumulate in the top 1% anymore.
– Competitiveindividualism is cultural belief that those who succeed in society are thosewho work the hardest and have the best abilities. Those that differ don’t work hard enough or lack thenecessary traits or abilities
sociallyconstructed category of people who share biologically transmitted traits thatmembers of society consider important.
– thesense of community that derives from the cultural heritage shared by a categoryof people with common ancestry
belief thathumans are subdivided into distinct groups that are different in their socialbehavior and innate capacities and that can be ranked as superior or inferior
- when largescale institutions are racist and help racism persist. Examples:
- Geraldorivera “colored boys shouldn’t wear hoodies for their own safety”
- Morecolored people have higher incarceration ratesAll tv is white entertaiment
– biologicalproof/explanation that whites are superior, legitimized by science
literallymeans “well born.” Theory ofcontrolling fertility of populations to influence inheritable traits
tendency forthe race of a society’s majority to be so obvious, normative, and unremarkablethat it becomes, for all intents and purposes, invisable
Belief that“one drop” of black blood makes a person black, concept evolved from US lawsforbidding miscegenation
- Miscegenation= a mixture of races; especially: marriage, cohabitation, or sexual intercourse between a white person anda member of another race
over-generalizedbelief that a certain trait, behavior, or attitude characterizes all members ofsome identifiable group
unfairtreatment of people based on some social characteristic, such as race,ethnicity, or sex
rigidly held,unfavorable attitudes, beliefs, and feelings about members of a differentgroup, based on a social characteristic such as race, ethnicity, or gender
formation ofnew racial identity, new ideological boundaries drawn around formerly unnoticedgroup of people (Muslim terrorists)
Set ofpolicies that grant preferential treatment to a number of particular subgroupswithin the population
refers topersons socially, politically, and geographically outside of the hegemonicpower structure
occurs when aperson’s sex or gender is the basis for judgment, discrimination, and hatredagainst him or her.
- refers todesire, sexual preference, sexual identity, and behavior.
howinstitutions promote sexism and gender roles in our society
- Storesselling just pink stuff for baby girls, blue for boys
- Genderdifferences in toys, dolls for girls cars for boys
line ofthought that explains social phenomena in terms of natural ones.
we only hearthat 2 genders exist, male and female
-InNavajo tribes there are 3 genders, male female and nadle
-Nadleperforms both male and female roles and dress for whatever activity they aredoing
- saysthat bc women are traded around for marriage it gives them the role ofproperty. Also bc women give birth and have to take care of children theybecome identified with domestic life.
- thenuclear family is the ideal arrangement in modern societies bc it fulfills thefunction of reproducing workers. With work oriented father and domesticoriented mother children are most effectively reared to be future laborers whocan meet labor demands of capitalist system.
abiding by thesocial norms of gender
women’sresponsibilities for housework and child care; everything from cooking dinner,doing laundry, bathing children, reading bedtime stories.
women areoverrepresented in lower wage jobs.More women are teachers, nurses, secretaries, childcare workers. All get paid less.
- women onlyearn a percentage of what men make. Gap income persists among educationallevels. Exists because of occupational segregation, discrimination, andinstitutional sexism.
the invisibleceiling women hit in their professional ladder. Women are told they can dowhatever they want but they always hit some plateau and cant go any higher.
- Example:women can be a ceo, but most are never able to make it past high management nowmatter how hard they try. Hit the “glass ceiling”.
men inpredominantly women occupations rise through the ranks easily
- Example:men elementary school teachers. Have no problem finding jobs, gettingpromotions and raises because there aren’t many men in the profession.
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