Patent medicines-A medicine, generally trademarked, whose composition is incompletely disclosed. ?? Significance:"the ethically questionable techniques used to advertise patent medicines had preyed o problems people knew about. Now advertising people became intent on using science both to find out the best tensions to associate with particular products and to present specific products as solutions to problems people didn't know they had". (page 33 of Confronting New Worries). What I think is important is that advertisers began to play on people's insecurities in order to sell their products. For example the Listerine ad from the 1920's, "Even your best friend won't tell you(that you have bad breath) etc. ?? FROM LECTURE: Patent medicines: Little commodies that could be sold through little stores, sell crack, cocain, heroin, ?quack medicines? sold in turn of the century 1900s, they were outlawed by the FDA because what they claimed to do wasn?t what they actually did. One of the magazines ?Ladies Home Journal? forced gov to get regulations Torches of Freedom-On March 31, 1929 Bertha Hunt marched down Fifth Avenue in her sunday best in the Easter Parade. She created a sensation when she lit up a Lucky Strike cigarette with her friends. The press had been alerted that the Hunt and her friends were going to light up "torches of freedom". At the time smoking wasn't considered "socially acceptable" for women. She told the press, that she hoped they had ?started something and that these torches of freedom, with no particular brand favored, will smash the discriminatory taboo on cigarettes for women and that our sex will go on breaking down all discriminations." ?? FROM LECTURE: Torches to Freedom: effort to get women to smoke, called cigarettes torches of freedom because they wanted to create an image for the product for women?s rights and this event was meant to show how women had equal rights. They walked around in a parade to prove this point- it used the media as free marketing= the newspaper picked up the story and ran the story all around the country (it was from New York). The guy who was behind it= Edward Bernays Significance: Bertha Hunt did not inform the press that she was the secretary of Edward Bernays, a self-styled expert in Public Relations and that he had just received a retainer from the American Tobacco Company to promote cigarette consumption among women. What seemed like a feminist promotion to the freedom of women was really a public relations ploy to opena new market for tobacco by getting women addicted to cigarettes. news hole-what remains when you strip a magazine or newspaper of its advertising. For newpapers, ads constitute 2/3, for magazines ½. ? Significance: prior to September 11th only 2% of news hole was devoted to international coverage. Advertisements significantly reduce the news hole, thus preventing us from learning about as much as we would in the absence of advertising. Wall between editorial & advertising-the pervasiveness of the advertising model weakens the divide between the two. As opposed to being separate they have become increasingly connected with so many editorials being written about ?what you should buy?. For example an ad about dark skinny jeans being placed next to an editorial about dark skinny jeans. Significance: The blurring line between the two is cause for concern (at least for consumers). The connection between editorials and advertising makes for a more homogenized perspective grounded in the importance of consumerism, leading us towards a consumer culture. FROM LECTURE: Wall Between Editorial & Advertising: The idea of the advertorial which blends the content of the magazine so that people think the ad is a part of the magazine. By having a wall between editorial and advertising, you allow your magazine to be diverse and the ads do not influence the editorial content. The people are fighting over ad content not editorial quality. consumer culture-personal identity becomes wrapped up in what you buy and you find yourself living within this culture. What you buy defines who you are. Significance: Consumer culture has come to define us as a society, affecting our values and making for a more superficial-brand oriented culture. (I think that this is a little subjective, but this is just my take on it). Invisible primary- This theory that existed when Howard Dean became involved with politics and he had this slogan of ? invisible primary? where he and his democratic party needed ?2 million supporters and 200 million dollars? in order to go forward in the campaign. Furthermore, it was this advanced idea that before the actual primary, he needed to gain support from the general public and start earning money from donors. Pseudo Events- It is a type of risk of public relations that deals specifically with an event created and staged simply to attract media attention to a particular cause. Without the media, nothing meaningful actually occurs at the event, so pseudo-events are considered ?real? only after they are viewed through news, advertisement, television or other types of media. A very easy example to understand is sitting for a family portrait: the even serves no purpose other than to be viewed through a photograph. Creel Committee- ?Also called the Committee of Public Information ( CPI) was a committee that was founded by President Woodrow Wilson in March of 1917 who specifically spoke on public information. The chairman of the committee was George Creel. The purpose of the CPI was to influence American public opinion toward supporting U.S. intervention in one via a prolonged propaganda campaign. This is when the $5 million ?Uncle Sam wants you!? campaigns became popular through advertising. Other types of propaganda included: ?lm, posters, newspaper/magazine ?articles, and speeches Spin Doctors: This is a risk of public relations where a professional can take any story and put a positive view, or "spin", on the story for the audience, even if it is a negative development. ?Significance: Since spin doctors can negatively affect stories, they can also affect audiences and their opinions on these stories. If many people in the public have a wrong view on a company or action in the world, this affects the products they buy or the policies they support. Presidential Approval Rating: I'm not really sure about this one, but basically- When a variety of news stations or polls ask a wide audience about their approval or disapproval of the President's actions. Using these measures, the poll-takers or news stations can try to measure the nation's general opinion of the President's decisions.? Significance: ? Specifically through the last 10 years, presidential approval ratings have shown the great approval of Bush after 9/11, then following his general decline to the end of his presidency. Also, through continuous polling, presidential approval ratings can show specific historical events that affected the views on the President throughout his presidency, such as the Iraq War or the capture of Saddam Hussein in Bush's case. Altria: Altria is a corporation that owns Phillip Morris (cigarettes) and Kraft. The company changed it's name to Altria to create a more positive image and to portray themselves in advertisements as a more responsible company. ?Significance: Contrary to the idea that tobacco companies have always been dismal at Public Relations, Altria's goal of reversing this image and trying to turn into a responsible company is more effectively trying to appeal to their many audiences.? Public Relations: This is a mass communication technique that mixes organizational management and persuasive communication to deliver to an audience on specifically supported issues, crises, changes, or brands. Public relations often has many different audiences they try to communicate with to build their support and they also may move through many roles to appeal to these audiences, such as an advertising, political communication, and journalism. ? Significance: Pubic relations has many benefits, including supporting non-profit, for-profit, and public service organizations in the marketplace. They also can build support for ideas and policies and respond quickly to crises. However, Public relations are also criticized for supporting ideas simply for their own benefit and projecting images and stories that are falsified to the public. Therefore, public relations can become a danger to the public by taking the place of in-depth journalism and supporting their own ideas. Stopping Power: This is an advertising technique where advertisers try to motivate the audience into wanting to watch the commercial and advertisement, and thus they will directly respond to the advertisement. An example here would be the Vonage ads shown by McLeod in lecture, where the advertisers used the same annoying music and tagline, but different video clips to capture the audience's attention and make them watch the ad. ? Significance: Stopping power is an example of an advertising success because it manages to capture an audience's attention to the point where they might decide to support the product by buying it. By creating an advertisement with stopping power, the advertisers more effectively appeal to the audience and cause them to consider buying their products.? Vampire Creativity: This occurs when at the end of an advertisement, the audience can remember the creativity or the originality of the advertisement, but not the actual product that was meant to be advertised. An example would be the "monkeys in the workplace" advertisement shown by McLeod in lecture, where most remembered the creative appeal of the ad, but did not remember which company it was for or remembered mistakenly. ? Significance: Since advertisers spend a great deal of money and time on advertisements, the audience not remembering the product is a major failure when the creativity overpowers the actual product. If the audience does not remember the product, the advertisers did not deliver their central goal through the advertisement, to support their products. Sousveillance- I found this in the March 11th lecture. The public's ability to watch their government "from below" (opposite of surveillance).?sig-I'm not sure? FROM LECTURE: Sousveillance ? the opposite (looking from the bottom up- the publics ability to have one slick disclosure on a corporation or government- allows you to be a watchdog of the corporation ? could watch what they?re doing with their money (ex. Campaign donations) or could watch lobbying (companies that try to convince governments to govern in a certain way). Special interests- I couldn't really find this one anywhere so I found it from a different source. I may be totally off on it so if I am please help me. Any organization that takes action on behalf of an identifiable group of voters.? Sig- Targeting smaller groups of people separately based on their specific interest makes them feel like the political candidate is really interested in them? Open source political campaign-also in the Wednesday March 25th lecture. There wasn't too much information on it but I got from another source that it is just viral campaigns on the internet. Also, its the idea that social networking and e-participation technologies will revolutionize our ability to follow, support, and influence political campaigns.? Sig- pounds a campaign ad into viewers heads, and may be effective on those who are undecided on who to vote for? GOTV-This one I'm not totally sure about, he mentioned it in the Obama Campaign lecture. He just kind of talked about the fact that Howard Dean used it and he took 3rd in Iowa. I looked around on the internet and I believe that it may stand for Get The Vote Out? Not quite sure so if anyone can help? FROM LECTURE: GOTV ? Get out the Vote- idea = people tell others where to vote and why they should vote ? one of the last stages of getting people to vote, could relate to political polling- they might think, oh my candidate is behind I should vote.. etc, etc Netroots-Wednesday March 25th lecture there was a small slide mentioning it, said many uncoordinated weblogs, I also found that its a combination of internet and grassroots?Significance-something to do with the way they were presented to people helped Obama win? Rev. Jeremiah Wright Jr.- Obama?s former pastor.?Significance: The reverend threatened Obama?s candidacy with his manner of preaching, it was publicized in connection with Obama?s campaign. Lincoln group- Formally known as Iraqex, it?s a Washington D.C. contractor with operations in Iraq hired by the United States to perform public relations. ?Significance: Rapidly growing and offers many job positions. It?s positioned between the army team and Iraqi staff- who are the company?s link to the local press Embedded Journalists- news reporters attached to military units involved in armed conflicts.?Significance: Get a firsthand look of what is really going on in the other country where the war may be taking place, and get a play by play of it. WMD- weapons of mass destruction?Significance: The Bush administration believed war was necessary on the basis of a potential threat, and he led everyone to agree because they believed that Iraq was possessing weapons of mass destruction. Eye candy effect- When words say one thing and pictures say another, pictures tend to override the words. ?Significance: To minimize retention propagandists will be showing positive pictures but at the same time saying, for example, the negative aspects of that product. FROM LECTURE: eye candy effect: people remember happy, nice pictures over words or narrations: example: Drug commericials tell the ?side effects? while showing happy, fine people. Maslow?s hierarchy?hierarchy of needs created by Abraham Maslow in the 1950s and 1960s. These needs included our basic needs at the bottom and our being needs at the top. They go as follows from bottom to top: Psychological needs, safety needs, belonging needs, esteem needs and self-actualization. ??Significance: this was the first cateogrical hierarchy that illustrated what humans needs consist of. These can be helpful like the psycographic profiles of the VALS survey to help advertisers make effective advertising that corresponds with the audinece?s needs. Maslow?s hierarchy?hierarchy of needs created by Abraham Maslow in the 1950s and 1960s. ID: Talking head is in reference to "think tanks" where such associations as think tanks provided a constant presence on radio and T.V. and created the image of "talking heads". The term is used in a descriptive fashion in that when people founded personal opinions on subjects discussed within "think tanks" or other relative associations, they would have most likely founded such opinions from the "talking head" they initially heard it from.??Significance: Using talking heads in "think tanks" provided a 24-7 opinion that individuals listening/watching would consistently be inundated with, thus providing an advantage to the spectrum (most likely political) the think tank is associated with. Market segmentation?identify segments of the market with (supposedly) similar wants and needs. Allows advertisers to craft advertising content and placement in order to target specific audiences.?? Borrowed interest?this is used to make products exciting by borrowing the interest from somewhere else, like the Marlboro Man and Tony the Tiger which Leo Burnett came up with. He opened an ad agency in Chicago when he was 44 and also came up with Charlie the Tuna and the Pillsbury Dough Boy. This was a branding strategy especially associated with groceries. The characters associated with the foods make the advertising interesting, and make the product recognizable. ?? Parity products?products that are the same and have the same purpose but can be distinguished from each other, like types of toothpaste. Brands advertise their product as better or different, but the products are all really the same. This is and advertising tactic different from ?unique selling proposition? in which products are advertised for having something specific about their product that is better, like nutrition. ?? Psychographics?what you believe, like politics, religion, worldview, and aspirations. Psychographics, along with demographics and geographics, are used to segment the audience in order to create advertising content to be specific to certain groups of people. The VALS survey is a survey for target marketing, which uses a psychographic profile system. ? reservoir of credibility- a "fallback" for large corporations. Many corporations participate in philanthropic and charitable functions in order to create a reservoir of credibility. That is, when a story breaks that might portray them in a negative light, people already have an image in their head. Many people with not care so much about the story or scandal because of their good history. FROM LECTURE: reservoir of credibility: How companies do things like community service so that if they do something bad, they at least have some good report. They want to build up reservoir of good will- they want consumers and citizens will give them the benefit of the doubt so that later they can spin their way out of a crisis. Voter demobilization- the fear that negative political advertising might cause voters to not want to vote.?Significance: In reality political advertising is mobilizing, encouraging people to get out to the polls. People are moved by advertising to act on the feelings the ads instill in them. Swift boat veterans for truth: group of Vietnam vets and former POWs formed during the 2004 election to oppose John Kerry.?Significance: a recent example of negative political advertising. This group was not affiliated with any campaign and produced their own ad to promote their own ideas. They aired 4 tv ads focused on criticizing Kerry?s character (his actions surrounding Vietnam). Coined the term ?swiftboating,? which is today used to mean ?smearing? a political candidate. Also drove news reporting, creating a media sensation. edward bernays- worked as a press agent on the Creel committee who first coined the term ?public relations.? He was the nephew of Sigmund Freud and applied many psychological ideas involving the subconscious to manipulate public opinion. His most famous campaign came from branding Lucky Strike cigarettes as ?torches of freedom? for women's rights.?? negative political advertising- rather than promoting a politician's positive characteristics, they focus on criticisms of the opponent, fault opponent's character, accomplishments, or issue positions. They are an important part of recent election bids and often come from outside sources, but they are still a minority in political ads. Negative ads are more easily recalled and issue attacks have a greater effect than image attacks. ??backlash effect- one result from negative political advertising that is completely opposite of the ad's intention. This increases support for the attacked and decreases support for the sponsor. Often, voters recoil against the attacked, especially if their support is for the attacked candidate. The overall effect of political advertising may actually be to increase voter turnout and participation. Soft Money:?ID: Soft Money is money that is donated to political groups or issues that is unregulated by the government. ?Significance: By giving soft money to political groups or issues, one is able to donate more than the 2400 cap for hard money that goes directly to a politician. By donating enough money to a candidate, an individual or company can gain access to a politician and have the newly elected official push the donator?s issues once a campaign is over. ?Smart Bombs: ?ID: Smart bombs were bombs designed to minimize the amount of collateral damage (killing of civilians) and only hit the military targets the military was after. These bombs became prominent images on CNN, which showed the war in real time, 24/7. ?Significance: Smart bombs reduced the amount of collateral damage, but also desensitized viewers from the realities of war in some respects. Smart bombs appeared to be more like video game images than bombs that were killing people in real life. Instead of news showing the view from the ground and the people who were killed, smart bombs allowed for less horrific images to be viewed. ?? Think Tanks: ?ID: Think Tanks are organizations that have been founded on person and corporate donations. They provide talking points and spin on issues for parties, legislators, governments, presidents and the media. Think Tanks are not limited to one political party, and there are many liberal and conservative think tanks. ?Significance: Think Tanks are significant because they provide viewpoints on political issues, but may be biased in their favor. For example, Think Tanks may choose to only publish research and information that will ensure continued funding by private donors, making their information biased. Many of the Think Tank organizations are funded through large donations by individuals or companies that wish to push their own political agendas. Charlotte Beers: ??ID: A previously successful advertising executive who was known as ?the queen of Madison Ave?. Beers became the 2001 undersecretary of Public Diplomacy and worked on Ad council campaigns to gain support and promote the War in Iraq under the Bush administration. FROM LECTURE: Charlotte Beers: Queen of Madison Avenue, tried to get towards women- tell them they could stop terrorism by helping out. She was a failure because she was hypocritical, the way she did things- appointed right after 9/11- she resigned for ?health reasons? right before we invaded iraq in march 2003. Significance: Although Beers? campaigns cost millions of dollars, her campaigns turned out to be unsuccessful in opinion polls. Beers found that support for the US was slipping in the Middle East and no Middle Eastern country had a favorable view on the US. In this case, advertising failed to sway public opinion of an unfavorable war to those living in the Middle East. Sphere of Legitimate Controversy: ??ID: The Sphere of Legitimate Controversy is one of the three spheres of Journalistic Style. This sphere aims at writing a news story to one?s audience or peers that make the story/issue seem that the outcome is not decided yet. ??Significance: This sphere is important because allows for a balance to be made between opposing viewpoints, using various information to allow for the reader to make their own opinion. If news stories post 9/11 had been written in this sphere rather than the sphere of consensus, it is possible that there would have been less misunderstandings about 9/11 and the later war in Iraq. This would have allowed for people to realize that the government?s policies and reasons for going to war were not justifiable since they lacked solid evidence. ??Margin of Error: ??ID: The margin of error is represented by 1 divided by the square root of ?n?, with ?n? representing the sample size of a poll. The margin of error is dependant on the size of the sample polled. For example, in a poll of 1,000 people, the margin of error usually is around 3%. ?Significance: The first increases in sample size produce the biggest benefits. This means that the largest margin of error occurs in smaller sample sizes. In order to have a more credible poll it is important to poll a large portion number of people (usually over 1,000 people). Sometimes the margin of error cannot account for what actually happens in the event being polled. This can be shown with the prediction that Kerry was going to win the 2004 election, when Bush actually won. FROM LECTURE Dance of Death ? after 9/11, terrorism was a media event, the news was benefiting because people were dying, Television and media was getting more money and more viewers because people wanted to know what was happening FROM LECTURE: (Advertising After the Network Era Article) Upfront Selling- the time of one or two weeks that networks sell their advertising for the whole year at one specific time- this way advertisers get a cheaper rate (usually) and the networks get their time sold so that they have capitol so they have money to make new shows/ episodes. They sell a guarantee- they?ll guarantee a certain amount of viewers and advertisers pay for this number- advertisers can also say, ?we want this many viewers between this age group?. FROM LECTURE: Communication Campaign ? FROM LECTURE: 1984 Commercial: Considered one of the greatest commercials of all time- it showed a woman, more human, representing the mac, and less human things representing other. The woman shows an axe at the screen. You never see the product yet you know that ?The Mac is Coming?. Only run once (superbowl). Commercial was re-mixed, ?Clinton represented Big Brother? on youtube- people found out about it virally. FROM LECTURE: The reason why Approach- it appeals to reason, used a lot in beginning of advertising, but people became immune to this kind of advertising- OR, lurking behind the scene, advertisers changed to more emotional approach because Freud psychology became more popular also b/c women were 75% of the readers and they made the decisions of what the family would buy so advertisers thought that emotional would appeal more to women. ESSAYS: Go back to lecture slides and go back to reader. You can fill in whatever gaps you need in order to write a good essay
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