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-Don’t need H2O for reproduction
Gymnosperms …ie pine (woody) perennial trunk of hard tissue
90% of all plants are angiosperms (house seeds) (woody & herbatious forms) (oak tree & sunflowers)
Protective coating around the embryo
Allows dormancy (does have to grow until conditions are ideal
Generalization of the process
Pine cone or flower
Megasporagia contain in the ovule
All this parts are diploid
Sporocyte=precursor to spores
Diploid cells undergo meiosis
Germinates in the ovule---creates the female gametophyte=egg
Microspores-divides mitoticly to become a male gametophyte
produce ovulate (female) and
pollen bearing (male) cones
For gymnosperms – the development of these woody structures take a while to produce.
1 Functional megaspore (n) per ovule
Megaspores stays on the plant
Microspores move off of parent plant
2 mitotic divisions
Pollen grain is very tiny (4 cells)
Immature male gametophyte
Wind dispersal is the way pollen can germinate
Transfer of pollen from where it’s formed to where it can fertilize
Pollen=immature male gametophyte
Fertilization takes place after pollination
2 sperm nuclei
Structure of developed ovule
Droplet of stick fluid at the micropyle to catch pollen
Fertilization takes place after pollination
Transfer of pollen from where it’s formed to where it can fertilize
Pollen=immature male gametophyte
Seed development in Gymnosperms
From ovule to Seed:
Seed coat: (derived from Integument) (2n)
Food supply: female gametophyte tissue) (n)
Embryo: (2n) (new sporophyte)
Gymnosperm see:. Fertilization initiates
the transformation of the ovule into a seed,
which consists of a sporophyte embryo, a
food supply, and a protective seed coat
derived from the integument.
Ovule provides precursors for female reproduction
Flower=consist of modified leaves
Coevolution with pollinators
Double fertilization: 1 fertilizes an egg
-the hall mark of
Fruit a developed house-for the dissemination of seeds
Unique to angiosperms
-Sperm + 2 polar nuclei ® triploid endosperm (3n) (nutritive tissues to be used by the embryo)
Is what differentiates angiosperms from gymnosperms
---Endosperm (3n) → nutritive tissue
Fungi emerged onto land around the same time as plants.
Monophyletic group that are sister taxa to animals
Fungi only have a superficial plant-like existence…
Basal group has a flagellated form (first to evolve, probably)
Don’t fossilize very well so could have emerge earlier than reported.
Uniconta—refers to a single flagella
Fungi are a part of the oplistithokunts
Fungi and their close relatives
The ancestor to opisthokonts are believed to be flagellated.
Example of mc haploid organisims
Any of the nuclei in the filament of the fungi are haploid
These organisms acidify their enviro…modifies their environ So it works for them
Enzymes that are secreted externally
--able to digest cellulose, lignin & keratin (protein found in hair& nails)
Main body of the fungi lives beneath the surface
Mycelium—lots of hyphae lumped together
Structure gives them great absorbency
Based on if the tubular structure has cross walls
Non-septate: most ancestral (aka coenocytic hypha)
Cross walls tend to stream in the direction on the tips
Hyphaes fuse and is extremely important to reproduction.
How do fungi reproduce?
Plasmogamy: union/fusion of the cytoplasm…or fuse with a spore
Heterkaryon/dikaryon: has multiple nuclei/had diff nuclei in it...
Karyongamy: fusion of the nucleus---equvilent to fertilization in plans
Sexual spores: meiosis creates
Exploring fungal diversity
Chytrids: basal: generally unicelluar
Ascomycetes(cup fungi) & basidiomycete (mushroom): Crown fungi evolved most recently (coeptic hyphae)
Flagellated chytrid zoospores: n - nucleus; m - mitochondrion; nc – nuclear cap; lip – lipid body; flag – flagellum
Most life cycles are not know for this species
Live on pollen grains (typically)
Certain species are responsible for extinction of animals in the rainforest
Also fungi that can live in dung
Pilobolus-live in horse dung…pressure shoots spores feet away from dung
Are mutualistic with plant roots
Arbuscular endomycorrhizae: form tree like structures in plant root cells
penentrate the cell wall but not the membrane (i.e. fingers in a inflated balloon)
Roots get fixed carbon via the leaves photosynthetics
Don’t reproduce sexually. Cannot survive without other plants
Classified as mutualists
Asexual reproduction in Ascomycetes
Ectomycorrhizae: don’t penetrate the root cells, just form around it
Can live on bare soil, and bare concrete as well as in the forest
assists in the uptake of nutrients
Can reproduce asexually
Generally can’t live without each other but can in certain instances.
Highly reduced gametophytes, ovules, pollen, seeds
Sperm delivery in seedless plants is dependent upon the presence of water. The sperm of these organisms have flagella and require a “pool” in which to swim in order to get to the egg, which is usually not too far away. Sperm delivery in seed plants depends upon the pollen grain, an invention that obviates the need for water. The pollen grain delivers the sperm (nucleus) to the ovule through the air and pollen tube, thus eliminating the need for water for this purpose.
Three things: The gametophytes of seed plants are reduced and dependent upon the parent sporophyte, which protects them from desiccation and ultraviolet radiation from sunlight. Pollen is covered with sporopollenin, which is resistant to physical factors in the environment. The structure of the seed protects the next generation sporophyte and allows it to remain dormant until conditions are right for germination, development and growth.
The ovule contains the megasporangium which gives rise to the female gametophyte; this structure remains protected within the sporangium and integument. Archegonia develop within each gametophyte, each containing an egg cell. Pollen is produced in the microsporangia of the male cones. Each pollen grain contains a generative nucleus, tube nucleus and two body cells. Pollen is delivered via the air (wind, usually) to the opening of the ovule (micropyle). The tube cell forms a pollen tube through which the sperm nucleus (derived from one division of the generative nucleus) is delivered to the ovule. After fertilization the embryo develops within the ovule and a seed is formed from the integument (seed coat), nutritive tissue (gametophyte) and embryo (next generation plant or sporophyte).
Seedless vascular plants require water for the sperm to get to the egg; this takes place on an independent gametophyte. Most seedless plants have one kind of spore. Seed plants produce megaspores and microspores and therefore have different sized spores. The female gametophyte of seed plants is derived from a functional megaspore and is retained on the parent plant until seed dispersal. This provides a protected environment for the developing young sporophyte.
Describe how the parts of an ovule (integument, megaspore, megasporangium) correspond to parts of a seed (seed coat, embryo, endosperm) in gymnosperms & include ploidy levels.
The integument (2n) surrounds the megasporangium (2n); the megasporangium (2n) contains the megasporocyte (2n), which undergoes meiosis to give rise to four haploid (n) cells. One of these haploid cells becomes the functional megaspore (n). The megaspore (n) divides by mitosis to produce the multicellular female gametophyte (n) and one or two archegonia (n), each containing one egg (n). The mature seed has a seed coat derived from the integument (2n), nutritive material derived from the female gametophyte (n), and the embryo (2n) derived from the zygote after fertilization.
Describe the pinecone in terms of structure and function.
The female pinecone is a compact structure formed from a central axis with whorls of sporophylls (scales) attached. The sporophylls are scale-like structures with two ovules at the base of each. The scales are open when the female cone is young in order to accept pollen delivered by the wind. After pollination the scales of the female cone close. The cone develops and enlarges over the next year or two as the pollen tube grows through the micropyle towards the archegonium. After fertilization the female cone becomes even larger and woody. When the seeds are completely developed the pinecone opens up to release the seeds.
You cannot. The male gametophyte in seed plants is so reduced there is no antheridium. In gymnosperms, the 4-celled pollen grain is what remains of the male gametophyte – a sperm delivery device floating in the air.
Pollination is the delivery of pollen and its deposition on the recipient (micropyle of the ovule in the case of gymnosperms and stigma of the carpel in angiosperms). Fertilization is what it is always is: union of egg and sperm, wherever that may be.
Dormancy allows a plant to remain protected and inactive until an appropriate time arrives for germination.
Does the life cycle of animals have any structure analogous to plant gametophytes? Explain.
No, there is no gametophyte equivalent in animals. Animals have a gametic life cycle, which does not include a multicellular haploid stage or phase.
The gametophytes of angiosperms are even more reduced than that of gymnosperms in that they have no archegonia (gymnosperm ovules develop archegonia and neither develop antheridia); the gymnosperm pollen grain is 4-celled and angiosperm pollen grain is 2-celled; the gymnosperm female gametophyte is multicellular and develops several archegonia within the ovule; the angiosperm female gametophyte is an 8-celled embryo sac that houses an egg, but never develops an archegonium; angiosperm ovules are housed in carpels; angiosperms undergo double fertilization, formation of endosperm, and fruit formation.
The generative cell in the angiosperm pollen grain divides once to produce two sperm nuclei as in gymnosperms, but in angiosperms both sperm nuclei unite with other nuclei: one with the egg to produce the zygote (2n) and ultimately the next generation sporophyte, and the other with the central cell (which has two haploid polar nuclei) to form the triploid (3n) endosperm; this is called double fertilization which does not take place in gymnosperms. In gymnosperms, one sperm nucleus unites with an egg in one archegonium forming the diploid (2n) zygote which gives rise to the next generation sporophyte. The other sperm nucleus does not fertilize anything and degenerates.
The integument (2n) gives rise to the seed coat (2n); the embryo (2n) is derived from the zygote when egg (n) and sperm (n) unite; the endosperm is a triploid tissue (3n) that is derived from the union of one sperm nucleus and the central cell which has two haploid polar nuclei.
Angiosperms appear suddenly in the fossil record which is devoid of more ancestral forms except for a very few (e.g., Archaefructus); flowers and fruits of living angiosperms contrast sharply with the cones and reproductive structures of living gymnosperms.
Both flowers and cones are composed of leaf-like structures or scales that possess sporangia, which give rise to spores via meiosis. Gymnosperms possess separate pollen cones and ovulate cones. Angiosperm flowers can possess both stamens (with anthers) and carpels or these structures can be on separate staminate and carpellate flowers.
Pollination in angiosperms is the transfer of the immature male gametophyte or pollen grain to the female receptive structure or the stigma of the carpel. How this is accomplished depends upon the way in which the flower is adapted for pollen distribution: wind, insects, mammals, birds, or water. Fertilization does not take place until the tube nucleus generates a pollen tube that grows from the stigma down the style to the ovary where the ovules are contained. Sperm nuclei are discharged into the embryo sac where they fuse with the egg cell and the central cell.
Seed formation and cone development in gymnosperms takes as long as 18 months to several years, depending on the species. In angiosperms pollen tube growth is much faster as is fertilization; seed & fruit development are accomplished in as little as one to several months, depending on the species.
What is the main function of the fruit?
Seed dispersal via various adaptations that involve wind, water, and vertebrate and invertebrate animals.
Fungi are absorptive heterotrophs: they secrete digestive enzymes that break down polymers to monomers which are absorbed across the cell wall and cell membrane. Animals are ingestive heterotrophs: they eat their food and digest it in a compartment within their bodies.
Either they are derived from the same fungal mycelium that has spread underground and given rise to the two masses at distant locations from each other, or they were produced from separate mycelia that grew from genetically identical asexual spores.
Does the fungal life cycle include alternation of generations? Compare the haploid and diploid states of fungi, animals, and plants.
No, fungi do not undergo alternation of generations: their life cycle includes a multicellular haploid phase and a unicellular diploid phase manifested as many individual zygotes within a fruiting body. The animal life cycle includes a multicellular diploid phase and a unicellular haploid phase manifested by haploid gametes. Only plants and some protista undergo true alternation of generations manifested by both multicellular haploid and multicellular diploid phases, also known as “generations.”
Name the characters shared by fungi and animals.
Characters shared by fungi and animals include eukaryotic cells; opisthokont common ancestry; heterotrophy; chitin production; glycogen as the storage carbohydrate; molecular homologies such as DNA sequences coding for ribosomal subunits.
What feature of the chytrids supports the hypothesis that they represent an early diverging (basal) fungal lineage?
They have flagellated spores called zoospores.
Fungi play important ecological roles as decomposers of dead plants, fungi and animals; recyclers of inorganic nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorus, sulphur and organic carbon compounds; symbiotic relationships with plant roots in the form of mycorrhizae that enhance plant nutrition; symbiotic relationships with animals providing digestive services for grazing mammals; symbiotic relationships with invertebrate species such as ants.
How do lichens reproduce?
Lichens reproduce via soredia, which are small lichen fragments composed of both the fungal partner and the photosynthetic partner; the fungus can reproduce separately by forming a fruiting body and spores, and the photosynthetic partner can reproduce via asexual cell division.
Mycorrhizae are plant root/fungal mutualistic symbioses. Most plants have fungal hyphae associated with their roots in the soil environment. Most mycorrhizae are members of the Glomeromycetes which are arbuscule-forming endomycorrhizal forms. Some Basidiomycetes form ectomycorrhizal associations with plant roots, particularly in trees. Ectomycorrhizae form sheaths of hyphae around the root tips with which they associate. In either form, the fungus benefits by receiving fixed carbon from the plant, and plants benefit from enhanced water and mineral (such as phosphorus) uptake via associated and extended hyphae. Due to their extensive surface area and ability to associate with plant roots, mycorrhizae play an important role in plant nutrition. See page 811 in your text.
Indeterminate growth of shoots and roots allows the plant to find light and water & nutrients necessary for growth. Determinate growth of leaves limits their size and prevents them from draining nutrients excessively and becoming a physical problem for the plant in terms of organ mass.
Characterize the role of each of the three tissue systems in a plant.
The dermal tissue is the covering of all parts of a plant and provides protection; the vascular system transports water & inorganic nutrients via the xylem, and photosynthate (sugars) via the phloem, to different parts of the plant; the ground tissue fills in the area between the dermal system and the vascular system and functions in storage & metabolism (respiration and photosynthesis).
Which cells in the plant body are dead, yet fully functional?
Sclerenchyma - including fibers, sclerids (e.g., stone cells of the pear fruit), vessel elements, tracheids, and cork cells.
What is the role of companion cells in phloem tissue?
Companion cells are adjacent to sieve tube elements (STEs) of angiosperm plants. They assist STEs in metabolism, energy transduction, and membrane transport functions due to the lack of the full complement of organelles in STEs.
Secondarily thickened cell walls in fibers, tracheids, and vessels provide support for plants of significant height; the cuticle covers all aerial surfaces of the plant inhibiting water loss; stomata are small openings that open and close thus regulating gas exchange and prevent desiccation; bark provides a resistant protective structure that allows plants to survive extreme environments; tracheids, vessels, and sieve tube elements allow long distance transport of fluids throughout the plant body; modified leaves such as spines prevent herbivory;
What is the difference between a primary cell wall and a secondary cell wall?
Primary cell walls are thin and flexible, and are composed of cellulose, pectin and other carbohydrates. Secondary cell walls form inside the primary cell wall and are composed of lignin in addition to cellulose and other carbohydrates, which greatly strengthens the cell wall.
What is the difference between primary and secondary growth?
Primary growth arises from apical meristems in both the shoot and the root; it gives rise to and elongates plant organs. Secondary growth arises from lateral meristems and increases the girth of stems and roots.
In herbaceous plants the youngest parts are at the tips of the roots and the shoots; the oldest parts are at the base of the plant where the shoot emerges from the soil and where the root enters the soil. The same is true for woody plants, but the youngest parts also exist as the most recent layers of secondary xylem and phloem which are located on either side of the vascular cambium in woody roots, shoots and their branches.
Vascular cambium initially develops as a thin band of meristematic cells between the primary xylem and phloem within each vascular bundle. At the same time cortical cells give rise to more meristematic cells that extend and complete the band between the vascular bundles. This takes place along the length of the shoot (trunk) and forms a complete cylinder of vascular cambium.
Cortical cells outside the vascular tissue form a complete ring of meristematic tissue along the length of the trunk forming the complete cylinder of cork cambium.
Early wood refers to secondary xylem produced in the spring when water is plentiful; vessels and tracheids of early wood have large diameters when viewed in cross section. Late wood refers to secondary xylem produced in the summer when less water is available; vessels and tracheids of late wood have small diameters when viewed in cross section.
Would you expect a tropical tree to have distinct growth rings? Why or why not?
No; since the tropics has a relatively constant climate with no distinct seasons and temperature differences with time, growth rings are not apparent in trees growing in the tropics. An exception would be if there were distinct rainy and dry seasons.
No; primary growth or an increase in length takes place only at the tips of the tree. The branches of a tree would remain in the same place, but they would increase in girth with each growing season.
Stomata must be able to close because evaporation is much more intensive from leaves than from the trunks of woody trees as a result of the higher surface area to volume ratio in leaves (the total surface area of all the leaves is far greater than the total surface area of the trunk of a tree).
Girdling is defined as removing a complete ring of bark around the circumference of a tree. Since bark includes the secondary phloem, this would prevent the movement of sugars (photosynthate) from the roots to the shoots and leaves and vice versa.
Short distance transport refers to transport across the membrane of any cell; this can involve gases, ions, organic molecules and water. Long distance transport refers to the bulk flow of fluids (with or without dissolved solutes) from one area of a large organism to another area in response to a pressure gradient.
What is the difference between passive and active membrane transport? Give an example of each relative to the plant cell.
Passive transport refers to the transport of molecules across a cell membrane down a concentration gradient (from a region of high to low concentration); metabolic energy (ATP) is not needed. Passive transport includes simple diffusion and facilitated diffusion. An example of passive transport in plants is the simple diffusion of O2 out of a photosynthesizing cell and the simple diffusion of CO2 into a photosynthesizing cell. An example of facilitated diffusion in a plant cell is osmosis of water molecules moving through the membrane via aquaporins.
Active transport refers to the transport of a solute across a cell membrane against a concentration gradient (from a region of low to high concentration). Metabolic energy in the form of ATP is required. An example is the proton (H+) pump in the plant cell membrane that moves protons from within the cell out into the external environment or extracellular space.
Passive transport includes simple diffusion and facilitated diffusion. Gases like O2 and CO2 move across a membrane via simple diffusion between the phospholipid molecules of the cell membrane. Solutes such as ions (K+, Na+ NO3-), sugars, amino acids and even water can cross a membrane via facilitated diffusion with the help of protein transporters that are specific for each solute.
The proton gradient can be used as an energy source to drive the transport of solutes such as sucrose or NO3- up their respective concentration gradients (this is called secondary active transport).
The movement of water via osmosis would be much slower and it would take the plant cell longer to adjust to different conditions of water potential.
Bulk flow of xylem sap would be very slow due to the presence of cytoplasm which would occlude the “tubes” that make up the conducting elements of xylem.
Transport in Vascular Plants: How does the Casparian strip turn the endodermis into a sentry for the enclosed stele?
The Casparian strip is a region of suberized cell wall that prevents water (with dissolved solutes) flow through the radial and transverse walls of the endodermal cells. This forces water and anything dissolved in it to bypass the apoplastic transport route and instead move through the endodermal cell membrane before entering the cell. Transport of only selected solutes take place at the cell membrane.
Water flows via osmosis into the cortex and stele (vascular cylinder) after accumulation of ions in the root symplast and apoplast. When this process takes place at night when stomates are closed and transpiration is negligible, a positive pressure or push force develops at the level of the root. In small herbaceous plants, sometimes root pressure pushes water out through the edges of the leaves; this is called guttation.
Transpiration is the evaporation of water from the interior of the leaves; this produces a negative pressure, or tension, which literally pulls water up the length of the plant.
If the conducting elements had only thin primary cell walls they would be vulnerable to collapse due to the high conducting element tensions developed from transpiration.
At dawn, the stomates are still closed and transpiration is minimal. Root pressure then accounts for the accumulation of water at the surface of the stump. At noon, the stomates are open and the plant is transpiring at a high rate; the accumulating of water at the surface of the stump is thus prevented.
The dye would not move into the celery plant and color the leaves because it would have to enter via the root; it would be selectively prevented from crossing the cell membranes of the endodermis and entering the stele (vascular cylinder).
The stimuli that regulate the opening and closing of stomata are heat, wind, CO2, and drought – all of which cause them to close. Stomates are also affected by light, which causes them to open. Other factors include a natural circadian rhythm (opening and closing) and the production of abscisic acid, which induces closure.
Xylem sap moves via the transpiration stream, which is a pull force or tension (negative pressure) driven by a gradient in water potential from outside the leaves (air) to the level of the root. Phloem sap moves via positive pressure driven by a pressure differential set up within adjacent conducting elements of the xylem and phloem.
Sugar sources include mature leaves and storage roots. Sugar sinks include expanding leaves, flowers, fruits, and roots. Organs that can be either include leaves (which are sinks when developing), and storage roots (which are sinks in the summer during the active growing season and sources in the spring at the beginning of a growing season).
Animal cells are not surrounded by a cell wall and are thus not protected from an increase in volume. A net osmotic flow of water into an animal cell would cause it to explode, and a net osmotic flow of water out of an animal cell would cause it to shrivel. The extracellular fluid surrounding animal cells must have the same solute/water potential as the interior of the animal cell, which results in a zero net flow of water into or out of the cell.
The water potential of the environment is greater than that of the cell and so water will move into the cell via osmosis. Water will move into the cell until an equilibrium is established when the internal positive pressure (turgor pressure) developed is equal and opposite to the cell’s solute potential. The turgor pressure will be +0.2 MPa.
Some lawnmowers collect clippings for easy disposal and to prevent clumps from inhibiting photosynthesis. What is a possible drawback of this practice with respect to plant nutrition?
The grass clippings contain many nutrients, both organic and inorganic, that could benefit the growing grass plants if they were left to decompose and compost; ultimately this is preferable to artificial fertilizers.
Clay consists of the smallest sized soil particles and therefore provide a huge total surface area for ion exchange with positively charged nutrient ions in the soil water. Clay also retains water to a far greater degree than larger soil particles, also owing to the particle small size and large surface area to volume ratio. Soil particles are negatively charged and therefore attract positively charged ions or cations.
Organic fertilizer provides nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) in a form that is complexed with large, carbon-containing molecules such as that found in humus and animal waste. This causes nutrient release to be slow and less likely to leach away with each rainfall or watering. Industrially produced synthetic fertilizers are highly enriched and immediately available to plants, but also less likely to be retained by the soil and are thus easily leached out.
Ninety percent of the plant dry weight is derived from CO2 in the air which is fixed to organic carbon compounds that form the bulk of the plant body.
No; all essential elements are equally important because a plant cannot complete its life cycle without all essential elements, regardless of quantity; this need defines the term “essential” in this regard.
Carbon: organic compounds; Oxygen: organic compounds & aerobic respiration; Hydrogen: organic compounds; Nitrogen; nucleic acids, proteins, ATP, hormones, chlorophyll, coenzymes; Potassium: intracellular solute for cellular solute potential, stomatal opening, enzyme cofactor; Calcium: cytoskeletal regulator, second messenger, enzyme activation, maintains integrity of cell wall & cell membrane; Magnesium: component of chlorophyll, enzyme activation; Phosphorus: proteins, nucleic acids, ATP, coenzymes; Sulfur: proteins, coenzymes.
Soil bacteria like Rhizobium, Klebsiella and Frankia are nitrogen fixers―they reduce N2 to NH3 making atmospheric nitrogen available to the plant. Mycorrhizae are symbiotic fungal-root associations that facilitate nutrient exchange between the two organism types: the fungi obtain fixed carbon from the plant and the plant benefits from the huge absorptive surface area (for water and minerals) provided by the fungi as well as enhanced phosphate uptake.
Leghemoglobin is an oxygen binding protein produced by the roots of leguminous plants that limits the oxygen concentration in the region of the nodules. Nitrogen fixing bacteria reside in the nodules and produce nitrogenase, an enzyme that is inactivated in the presence of high levels of oxygen.
This is an example of convergent evolution which gave rise to an optimum oxygen binding protein in two very different organisms. Leghemoglobin and myoglobin are therefore analogous proteins, or homoplasies.
Nitrogen fixation reduces N2 with H2 to give rise to NH3; nitrification oxidizes NH3 to NO2- (nitrite) and NO3- (nitrate); denitrification converts nitrate to N2; ammonification converts organic nitrogen containing molecules to NH3.
An epiphyte is a plant that lives on top of another plant―at most to gain an advantage in height that it otherwise would not have. A parasitic plant lives on another plant not only for the advantage of height, but also for nutrients it can gain from the host plant. An epiphytic plant is usually not harmful to its plant companion, but a parasitic plant can often kill its host.
These organisms are still considered plants because they possess many homologies that link them to flowering plants; the loss of chlorophyll can be thought of as an evolutionary reversal.
Carnivorous plants attract their prey by secreting sweet nectar as a lure to their various shaped traps.
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