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The portion of a church flanking the nave and separated from it by a row of columns or piers.
Literally, a double theater. A Roman building type resembling two Greek theaters put together. The Roman '' featured a continuous elliptical cavea (seating area) around a central arena.
A recess, usually singular and semi-circular, in the wall of a Roman basilica or at the east end of a Christian church.
A curved structural member that spans an opening and is generally composed of wedge-shaped blocks (voussoirs) that transmit the downward pressure laterally.
In a Roman amphitheater, the central area where bloody gladiatorial combats and other events took place. '' comes from the Latin for “sand.” Sand covered the floor.
A technique in painting to suggest a recession in space by increasingly blurring the appearance of objects in the distance.
The court of a Roman house that is partly open to the sky. Also the open, colonnaded court in front of and attached to a Christian basilica.
In architectural terminology, the uppermost story.
also called a tunnel vault; an extension of a simple arch.
In Roman architecture, a public building for assemblies, rectangular in plan with an entrance usually on a long side. In Christian architecture, a church resembling the Roman '', usually entered from one end and with an apse at the other.
An exterior masonry structure that opposes the lateral thrust of an arch or vault.
The hot-bath section of a Roman bathing establishment.
A Roman military encampment, famed for the precision with which it was planned and laid out.
A sunken panel, often ornamental, in a soffit, a vault, or a ceiling.
A capital with an ornate combination of Ionic volutes and Corinthian acanthus leaves that became popular in Roman times.
A building material invented by the Romans and consisting of various proportions of lime mortar, volcanic sand, water, and small stones.
In painting or sculpture, the convention of the same figure appearing more than once in the same space at different stages in a story.
A small cubicle or bedroom that opened onto the atrium of a Roman house. Also, a chamber in an Early Christian catacomb that served as a mortuary chapel.
A breastplate. In Roman art, the emblem of a military officer.
The Roman decree condemning those who ran afoul of the Senate. Those who suffered '' had their memorials demolished and their names erased from public inscriptions.
The E-W street in a Roman town, intersecting the cardo(N-S) at right angles.
The standard Roman silver coin.
A hemispheric vault, theoretically an arch rotated on its vertical axis.
A Roman private house.
‘Golden House.’ The Emperor Nero’s extravagant villa in Rome.
Recessed area, usually semi-circular.
A page of a manuscript or book.
The public square of an ancient Roman city.
In ancient and medieval society, the class of men and women who had been freed from servitude, as opposed to having been born free.
The cold-bath section of a Roman bathing establishment.
In ancient Rome, wax portraits of ancestors.
Latin meaning “commander in chief,” from which the word emperor is derived.
In a Roman house, the basin located in the atrium that collected rainwater.
The part of a church between the chief entrance and the choir, demarcated from aisles by piers or columns.
The round central opening or “eye” of a dome.
Freeborn wealthy landowners of the Roman Republic.
In the Roman Republic, the social class that included small farmers, merchants, and freed slaves.
A Latin term meaning “chief priest” of the state religion. Literally the term means “chief bridge builder.”
literally, “First citizen,” a title used by Octavian Augustus.
In Roman architecture a series of engaged columns all around the sides and back of the cella to give the appearance of a peripteral colonnade.
Literally, a council of elders; the legislative body in Roman constitutional government.
The space created by the curve of an arch and an enclosing right angle.
The dining room in a Roman house.
French for ‘ fool the eye.’ A form of illusionist painting that aims to deceive viewers
The cloth awning that could be rolled out to cover the cavea at the ampitheater.
From the Latin verus meaning truth; truth particularly in Roman portraiture.
An open space used for public meetings or business in ancient Greek cities.
An off center parting of the hair with the locks brushed up and back near the part; a recognizable feature in the portraits of Alexander the Great.
Capable of warding off evil.
In early Greek pottery, the silhouetting of dark figures against a light background of natural, reddish clay, with linear incised details.
A rule of proportion. The Greek sculptor Polykleitos wrote a ‘’ outlining the proportions for the ideal statue.
A female figure that functions as a supporting column.
The chamber (Greek naos) at the center of an ancient temple; in a classical temple, the room in which the cult statue usually stood.
In ancient Greek mythology, a fantastical creature, with the front or top half of a human and the back or bottom half of a horse.
In Greek mythology, the battle between the Greeks and centaurs.
Made of gold and ivory.
The disposition of the human figure in which one part is turned in opposition to another part; a twist of the body about its central axis.
The projecting, crowning member of the entablature framing the pediment; also, any crowning projection.
A convex tapering (an apparent swelling) in the shaft of a column.
In the Classical Greek Ionic order, the three horizontal bands that make up the architrave.
Vertical channeling, roughly semicircular in cross-section and used principally on columns and pilasters.
The use of perspective to represent in art the apparent visual contraction of an object that extends back in space at an angle to the perpendicular plane of sight.
The part of the entablature between the architrave and the cornice; also, any sculptured or ornamented band in a building, on furniture, etc.
In ancient Greek mythology, the battle between gods and giants.
In ancient Greek mythology, a hideous female demon with snake hair. Medusa, the most famous '', was capable of turning anyone who gazed at her into stone.
The term given to the Greek culture that developed after the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and lasted until the Roman conquest of Egypt in 31BC.
An ancient Greek three handled water pitcher.
Literally, “in place.” Referring to an object or work as in the original position.
An ancient Greek shallow drinking cup with two handles and a stem.
A bronze casting method in which a figure is modeled in wax and covered with clay; the whole is fired, melting away the wax and hardening the clay, which then creates a mold for molten metal.
A monumental tomb.
The shaping or fashioning of three-dimensional forms in a soft material, such as clay; The terms also refers in drawing to the use of gradations of light and shade.
Patterns or pictures made by embedding small pieces of stone or glass (tesserae) in cement on surfaces such as walls and floors; also, the technique of making such works.
An ancient Greek and Roman exercise area, usually framed by a colonnade, often found in bathing establishments.
Mosaics made of irregularly shaped stones of various colors.
In classical architecture, the triangular space (gable) at the end of a building, formed by the ends of the sloping roof above the colonnade; also, an ornamental feature having this shape.
A simple long woolen belted garment worn by ancient Greek women that gives the female figure a columnar appearance.
In Greek architecture, a colonnade all around the cella and its porches.
In Greek Architecture, a '' colonnade consists of a single row of columns; a dipteral colonnade has a double row.
Independent city-states in ancient Greece. '' literally means “city.”
Done in several colors.
A porch with a roof supported by columns; an entrance porch.
A gateway building leading to an open court preceding an ancient Greek or Roman temple. The monumental entrance to the Acropolis in Athens.
The cornice on the sloping sides of a pediment.
A style of temple with columns at the front end, and not on the back or sides.
In later Greek pottery, the silhouetting of red figures against a black background, with painted linear details; the reverse of the black-figure technique.
A male follower of the Greek god Dionysus, represented as part human, part goat.
An ancient Greek general. Pericles was a famous Athenian ''.
A scraper, used by ancient Greek athletes to scrape oil from their bodies after exercising.
The uppermost course of the platform of a classical temple, which supports the columns.
tiny stones or pieces of glass cut to desired size and shape used in the creation of mosaics.
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