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The chemical and electrical gradients would ‘have a war’ to see which force is stronger (if they are equal, nothing will happen)
Osmotic pressure is created when you have a semipermiable membrane with two solutions of different osmolarities on either side. Water will flow to the side with the higher osmolarity and the osmotic pressure will be on the side that the water flows to (the side with higher osmolarity).
What is the difference between osmolarity and tonicity?
Osmolarity refers to solute concentration and tonicity refers to cell shape.
How I sickle cell anemia different from tonicity?
Sickle cell anemia is a genetic condition where hemoglobin subunits bind together in a manner that distorts cell shape. This shape difference is not related to water movement into or out of a cell like tonicity refers to.
Explain how the terms hydrophobic and lipophilic can be used to describe the same thing:
Hydrophobic means a substance is afraid of or doesn’t like water (such as a non-polar molecule). Non-polar molecules like other non-polar molecules (lipophilic).
Dr. Cohn mentioned that many things in the body are recycled (such as heme and cholesterol to make bile). How can CO2 be recycled and what is it used for?
CO2 is turned into bicarbonate and placed in the blood as a buffer for acids and bases. It is recycled in this way until blood reaches the lungs where excess CO2 (or excess bicarbonate is converted to CO2) and released as waste from the body.
What are the three specific types of diffusion that can be grouped as transports that do not require ATP?
What makes a molecule require a protein to help facilitate it through the membrane instead of just undergoing simple diffusion?
Molecules that are lipophobic or hydrophilic will be blocked by the lipid bilayer and therefore need transport across the membrane.
Explain which part of the red blood cell is responsible for O2 transport and when transport occurs (in the lungs and the cells).
Hemoglobin is responsible for O2 transport. Hemoglobin binds to oxygen when oxygen concentration is high (such as in the lungs) and lets go of oxygen when oxygen is at low concentrations (such as in the cells).
How do aquaporins relate to facilitated diffusion? What organ are they specifically important to?
Aquaporins are channel proteins (cause facilitated diffusion) specifically for water molecules. They are extremely important in Kidney physiology. In cells, they are found in high numbers in Red blood cells.
If they were no aquaporins, would water be able to cross the cell? Explain why or why not.
water would still cross the cell. Dr. Cohn mentioned this as a numbers game. A tiny percentage of substances will cross the membrane because the membrane is fluid and not completely solid (made of thousands of lipids). For most solutes, this tiny percentage is such a low concentration that they almost never cross the membrane. For water molecules, there are trillions of them and more. A tiny percentage of them is still significant.
What did Dr. Cohn mean by gated channel proteins? What are the two types of gates?
How are fatty molecules carried through the blood? What would happen if this did not occur?
Fatty molecules bind to water soluble carrier molecules and are carried through the blood. If this did not occur, fatty molecules would bind together and clog your arteries... And that would be bad.
How can you explain this in terms of glucose transport?
Insulin binds to a protein on the cell surface and the protein then binds to glucose molecules and takes them into a cell.
Based on elementary combinatorics, what is the maximum number of “words” possible using the constraints of the language?
Let us say that in another solar system, there is another genetic code in which the “words” are each 4 letters long, with a possible alphabet to draw from of 5 letters. How many possible “words” or codons, would there be?
What is post translational processing and where does it take place?
How are secretory proteins processed further after the RER and where are they processed?
After being processed by the Rough ER, proteins are transported to the receiving/cis side of the Golgi apparatus so that they can undergo further processing that involves addition of more lipids and polysaccharides or the trimming off of polysaccharides.
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the processing center for proteins and lipids. It is where proteins and lipids are synthesized for the cell.
How does the liver work hand in hand with the kidneys to detoxify xenobiotics?
-How do the answers of these questions dovetail with the ubiquitous warning labels about dosage and proper liver function printed on medicine bottles?
If your liver can’t detox the drugs in the system, they can provide harmful to you. Too much of the drug in the system at the same time will overwhelm the liver and make you sick.
Cirrhosis is a degenerative. The alcohol deteriorates the liver from trying to detoxify the alcohol. degenerative disease= irreversible
Double membraned (outer = phospholipid, inner “business membrane” = highly curved for more surface area for Electron Transport Chain to create ATP called cristae steroid producing cells)
Have own DNA reproduce themselves
Does the familiar theme of increased surface area in a small volume dovetail with mitochondrial structure? If so, how?
- Has own DNA like bacteria (Mitochondria don’t have a nucleus, but do have own DNA)
- Reproduce by binary fission
- Circular DNA and have own ribosomes like bacteria
Similar shape to bacteria
- Thought to be remnant of symbiotic relationship with bacteria and primarorial eukaryotic cell
- typical length of rod bacteria
DNA sequence is closest to Alpha Proteobacteria
Every cell is created with a nucleus. What cells do not have a complete copy of the genome? What cells have multiple copies of the genome (hint – also the cell that has lots of mitochondria)?
Red blood cells lost their nucleus so they do not have a complete copy of the genome. Skeletal muscle cells and osteoclasts have multiple copies of the nucleus and therefore multiple copies of the genome.
Cells can activate or deactivate different genes. By doing this they differentiate.
How is collagen organized within the lamellae of an osteon What is the significance of this organization?
Collagen fibers are oriented at alternating angles to the long axis in each lamella. This orientation of collagen fibers helps keep bones rigid and allows the bone to resist torsion/twisting forces.
What does formation of the epiphyseal line prevent?
Bones can reform and change density throughout life. They are constantly being broken down and reformed. If we need to put more stress on our bones, our bones can adapt to this demand. They also contain the hematopoietic tissue, bone marrow. If you are in places of high altitude with little oxygen, yellow marrow can revert into red marrow to produce more RBCs and oxygen
cells shrink and condense, cytoskeleton collapses, nuclear envelope disassembly, chromatin condenses and fragments
necrosis: cells die by acute, insult; they swell and burst
morphological changes of the cells that occur in --What do osteoclasts do?
Ensures the bones are shaped properly. If blood calcium levels get too low, this will shave off some of hydroxyapatite in order to get some calcium in blood stream
A bone develops from a fibrous membrane, forms minute skull (all the parts but tiny) but is not ossified-still completely membranous.
**INTRAMEMBRANOUS OSSIFICATION OCCURS FROM THE INSIDE OUT**
Which bones of the body undergo which type of ossification processes ?
- For endochondral ossification, how does primary ossification differ from secondary ossification.
secondary ossification follows almost exactly the events of primary ossification, however the spongy bone in secondary ossification is retained and no medullary cavity forms in the epiphyses, cartilage is not replaced by bone, no bone collar formation
During puberty, the brain will release a hormone Gonadotropic releasing hormone (GnRH) that will stimulate the pituitary gland to secrete gonadotropins → stimulate the gonads to secrete estrogen and testosterone → influence the growth of epiphyseal plates, and at the end of puberty will halt the growth at the epiphyseal plates.
Be able to explain how the activity of the epiphyseal growth plate lengthens the diaphysis while moving each epiphysis further away from the center of the diaphysis?
This happens because as the bone grows long- the plate will move further from center.The apoptosis of the chondrocytes in the calcification zone ensures the epiphyseal plate does not change width while allowing bone to grow
-Does the time of plate closure on average differ between the sexes? If so, how?
Yes, it’s dependent on puberty. Females stop around age 18, whereas males stop around age 20-21. The plates begin to ossify at puberty.
IGF1 is called a growth factor because it stimulates chondrocytes at epiphyseal plate to undergo mitosis, which stimulates growth.
It is also a paracrine substance, which is characteristic of a growth factor.It was originally discovered as a growth factor.
Does IGF-1 act as a hormone by the classic definition insofar as its effect on the epiphyseal growth plate?
Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (or Thyrotropin)
Stimulates normal development and secretory activity of the thyroid glands.
Synthesized and secreted: Anterior Pituitary gland
TSH will stimulate the thyroid to secrete thyroid hormones.
Gonadotropin Releasing HormoneGnRH is synthesized in the neurons of the brain, where it goes to stimulate the pituitary gland to secrete gonadotropins that travel to the gonads to secrete either estrogen or testosterone.
What kind(s) of receptor(s) mediate steroid hormone effects?
What physical property of minerals is thought to explain how Wolff’s law works?
They believe that the calcium salts of hydroxyapatite and calcium, when placed under stress, will generate very small electrical signals that is thought to shift the balance between osteoclasts and osteoblasts to either reabsorb/create more bone.
Can someone be subject to Wolff’s law beyond their growing years (ie, growing tall)?
What are the three hormones involved in regulating calcium levels in the blood? (PVC)
Pathway of vitamin D synthesis from the starting material (where is it initiated and under what circumstances) through the intermediate (where is this made) to the final product (where is this made and under the control of what?)?
Sound waves go into the ear canal and vibrate against the eardrum, then the drum vibrates against 3 very small bones (ossicles). The ossicles transmit vibration to superior most portion of cochlea (“screw”) to the fluid inside and set up vibrations in the fluid. The cells inside the fluid will stimulate hair cells in fluid of cochlea that will transduce vibrations into impulses that will go down the vestibular portion of your brain.
Relate one of the nerves you mentioned to a transducer. Explain how this specific eye nerve can be considered synonymous to the Vestibulocochlear nerve.
.A ganglia is a group of neuron cell bodies, linked by synapses, OUTSIDE of the CNS. The single term for this type of cell body is ganglion. Part of PNS
What is the only cranial nerve that does not come in a pair?
What is the main function of the nucleus? What is the structure of the nucleus? What occurs here? What is stored here?
When cells divide, DNA is replicated in the nucleus then the nucleus dissolves, chromosomes are pulled to either side of the cell, and the nucleus reforms around each copy of DNA.
What is the difference between DNA Helicase and DNA Polymerase?
DNA Helicase unwinds the DNA strands by breaking the hydrogen bonds between nucleotide pairs. DNA polymerase copies DNA strands during DNA replication.
Describe semi-conservative replication:
Explain how the DNA code is redundant:
Different codons can encode the same amino acids. There are 64 codons and only 20 amino acids.
DNA strands separate through DNA Helicase and then DNA polymerase adds nucleotides to each strand at the rate of 100 nucleotides per second. This gives semi conservative replication.
DNA is translated to pre-mRNA which is spliced into mRNA and then exported to the cytoplasm to be translated into proteins by ribosomes and tRNA.
process of mRNA moving through a ribosome.
The mRNA is bound to the small subunit of a ribosome. The first tRNA attaches to the start codon AUG and the large part of the ribosome closes over the tRNA and mRNA with the tRNA in the P site. A new tRNA binds to the A site. GTP transfers the amino acid from the tRNA in the P site to the amino acid on the tRNA in the A site. The tRNA in the P side moves to the E site and leaves the ribosome. The tRNA on the A site moves to the P site. A new tRNA binds to the A site. GTP transfers the amino acid chain from the tRNA in the P site to the amino acid on the tRNA in the A site. The tRNA in the P side moves to the E site and leaves the ribosome. This continues until the tRNA for a stop codon enters the A site causing the ribosome to dissociate and the protein to be released.
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