Last Modified: 2011-06-29
Related Textbooks:A History of Psychology: Ideas and Context (4th Edition)
-leading physician in Germany-obsessed with skull.
-to destroy cerebellum is to destroy motor coordination
-destroy cerebral cortex=passivity
**ex-Phineas P. Gage- proved Fluoren thoughts-you can suffer brain damage and another part of the brain will take over.
-there is localization for some functions of the brain
2. coined terms "neuron" and "synapse"
3. examines synaptic transmission, action potential, and excitatory and inhibitory properties of neurons in reflexes
4. Gestalt psychology
7. existential psychology
8. cognitive psychology (science)
-reductionist or bottom-up psychology
**-considered founder of psych, his course was put onto official records-1879
-christened new science- "physiological psych"
-taught at Cornell and first to allow women to study psych.
-advocated only a pure psychology
-"the experamentalists"=his group dedicated to tough minded psychologists
-Titcheners refusal of applied psych
history of psych
-first big figure in writing the history of psych
-received MD from Wundt in 1878
-1883 classification of mental disorders(paranoia, manic depression, and demetia)
-organic approach to psychopathology-nature side of issue-psych disorders are caused by the body
-1896-first psychologist to head a clinic
-1907-psychological clinic-called for a new profession "clinical psych"
-**modeled after ideas of Lightner Witmer
-the first woman in psych with PhD
-physician, expert in many areas, part of the lunar society, grandpa of Charles Darwin
-all traits develop from a need
-transmutation of species- characteristics of a species change based on external (envn) conditions. ex-giraffe
-wanted to refute evolutionary theory
-surplus of offspring=struggle for survival
-individual differences with survival value are passed to later generations(natural selection)
-continuity of species- opened the door to comparative psych.
-James C. Browne=psychiatrist and animal photographer
-insanity=human at a primitive stage of development
-insane people=strongest passions
insane people cant blush due to poor circulation
-women have an evolved deficit
(menstrual cycle forces women into mediocracy)
-male and female infants are not variable on height, weight, or cranial measures.
-male achievements are due to greater vocation options available to men
-motor and mental abilities dont diminish menstruation
-prestigious career in the study of mental deficiency and giftedness.
-principles of psych-1855
-statistical inquiries into the effectiveness of prayer-1872
-**co-relations and their measurements-1888-
-regression & analysis
-median & percentile
-hereditary genius-1869-"nature-nurture" controversy.
-genetics-intelligence is product of ancestors
-proposed couples be scientifically paired
-gov. should pay couples with desireable characteristics to marry
-conclusion= it wasnt nature, it was nurture. most people said no i was not born a scientist.
-not what Galton expected.
-MZ(one-egged, identical) twins are similar even when reared apart.
-DZ(2-egged) twins are dissimilar even when reared together
-Measurement and study of intelligence=word association test
-thought mental immagery would correlate intelligence but instead found scientists couldnt form images-variability
William James of Albany-grandfather
Henry James Sr.-father
William James born in 1842
-expedition with Louis Agassiz to Brazil in 1865
-MD in June 1869
-experiences intense 2 year depression after graduation
**-"My first act of free will shall be to believe in free will" -brought him out of depression
-Alice Howe Gibbens-Boston school teach and later wife
-entire career at Harvard, propular lecturer
-1st American professor to ask for student evaluations
-established first American psych LAB at Harvard-1875
-asked William James to write a psych textbook.
-**Principles of Psychology-1890- James 1st textbook
-**Psychology: Briefer Course-1892-a.k.a Jimmy-parts of the bible combines to make book, brought money to James
-Talks to Teachers-1899-last revision, how to teach psych
-"nothing includes everything...the word "and" trails along after every sentence..something always escapes"
structuralism-"brass instrument -psych"-psychologist has more interest in technology rather than patient-comparative psychology
-psychic-endless fascination with the paranormal
hard vs. soft determinism
-energies of men-1907-second wind
-Varieties of religious experience-1902-1st to study psych of religion
-James eventually lost interest in psych and moved onto philopsophy
="common sense psychologist"
-"everyday challenge yourself to something you wouldnt usually do"-motivational psych.
-habit is involved in brain plasticity-establish good habits when young, take longer when older
-billboard to the world, dont deny it, indulge in it.
-we have a different "self" for each person we know
-nicknames=names for our social selves
-unlike other selves, who you are inside when not around others, not trying to impress people.
-core essence of who you are as a human
-basis for will and mortality
sometimes selves have tensions or struggles-may compete
primary memory-has a fast decay
secondary memory-if rehearsal is used
tip of the tongue phenomena
James-Lange theory of emotion
ex- see a bear, heart beats really fast, then your afraid
-1st phD in Psych(1878-Harvard)
-1st American to study w/ Wundt
-established a psych lab at Johns Hopkins-1883
-1st editor of American Journal of Psych-1887, 1st psych journal in America
-1st president of Clark university-1889
produced 81 phds in 30 years at clarrk
-founded and 1st president of american psych association-1892
-1st to introduce psychoanalysis to Americans-freud and jung visited clark in 1909.
-**1st to attempt to talk to children of child studies
-Pedagogical Seminary-1891- 1st dev. psychology journal
-wrote "adolesence" 1904-strong Darwinian influence
-senescene-last half of life-1922
-psych of religion
-MD in 1887
-chosen to replace James at Harvard Psych Lab as director-1892
-advanced applied psych w/functional emphasis
-disliked theory of the unconscious motivation
-president of the APA-1898
-directive approach-therapist is the agent of change.(especially with assurance and hypnosis)
-stressed individual differences over nomothetic ones.
-criminal behavior=product of envn not hereditary
-study guilt by physiological processes(blood pressure, heart rate, eye movements
(lie detector test)
-psychology and industrial efficiency-book
-employee selection-simulations of human performance("Tasks on miniature")
-marketing and advertising-best effect-repetition of product would increase public awareness
-"social sins of advertising"
-PhD from Hall-1920- at Clark University-1st African American PhD in US
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