-localization of brain function -leading physician in Germany-obsessed with skull. -against phrenology
Doctrine of the skull- (Gall)
intelligence and personality "faculties" are localized in the brain-revealed in skull topography, if your good at something that part of the brain will inflame
faculty of the skull (Gall)
examination of bumps and depressions on skull to determine strengths and weaknesses of mental faculties
Johann Spuzheim and phrenology 1776-1832
phrenology-study of the mind
Pierre Flourens 1794-1867
-extripation- lesion regions then consequences. -to destroy cerebellum is to destroy motor coordination -destroy cerebral cortex=passivity
action commune (Flourens)
brain is not localized but functions as an integrated unit/system toward a common action
recovery of function (Fluorens)
certain cortical regions can recover after a brain injury. **ex-Phineas P. Gage- proved Fluoren thoughts-you can suffer brain damage and another part of the brain will take over.
Pierre Paul Broca 1824-1880
-studied patient Leborgne, aka tan, who was unable to speak for more than 3 years bc of a stroke
expressive aphasia (Broca)
loss of articulate speech
section of the left frontal lobe involved in the production of speech
articulate speech but without meaning
-section of the left temporal lobe involved in the comprehension of speech -there is localization for some functions of the brain
-Camilli Golgi-1843-1926-synaptic transmission -reticular theory
nerve cells are physically connected to eachother in a complex network of axons and dendrites
Santiago Ramon y Cajal-1852-1934 neuron theory
nerve cells are independent units separated by a narrow gap.
Charles Scott Sherrington-1857-1952
1.**integrative action of the nervous system-1906 2. coined terms "neuron" and "synapse" 3. examines synaptic transmission, action potential, and excitatory and inhibitory properties of neurons in reflexes
-Describe the structure of the mind by analyzing its elements -reductionist or bottom-up psychology
Willhelm Wundt 1832-1920
-established first psychological lab in 1879 at the University of Leipzig **-considered founder of psych, his course was put onto official records-1879 -christened new science- "physiological psych"
**Edward Titchener 1887-1927
-earned his phD from Wundt in 1892 -taught at Cornell and first to allow women to study psych. -advocated only a pure psychology -"the experamentalists"=his group dedicated to tough minded psychologists
The Demise of Structuralism due to :
- it ignored animal studies, abnormal psych, personality, learning, development, evolutionary theory. -Titcheners refusal of applied psych
Subfields that indirectly evolved from structuralism
-history of Psychology -clinical psychology
Edwin G. Boring 1886-1968 history of psych
-history of experimental psych(1929, 1950) -first big figure in writing the history of psych
Emil Kraeplin 1856-1926 clinical psych
-interested in psychiatry -received MD from Wundt in 1878 -1883 classification of mental disorders(paranoia, manic depression, and demetia) -organic approach to psychopathology-nature side of issue-psych disorders are caused by the body
Lightner Witmer 1867-1956
-PhD with Wundt in 1893 -1896-first psychologist to head a clinic -1907-psychological clinic-called for a new profession "clinical psych"
1949-conference in Boulder of best and brightest psychs. -Conference decided on Boulder Model=emphasized the need to be trained as a good clinician aware or current research. -scientist/practioner model -**modeled after ideas of Lightner Witmer
**Margaret Floy Washburn
-one of Ticheners students -the first woman in psych with PhD -animal/psych studies
Erasmus Darwin 1731-1802
-evolutionary theory -physician, expert in many areas, part of the lunar society, grandpa of Charles Darwin
-inheritance of acquired characteristics in terms of environment. -all traits develop from a need
Jean-Baptiste Lamark 1744-1829
-progressionism- steady linear advance from simple to complex species -transmutation of species- characteristics of a species change based on external (envn) conditions. ex-giraffe
Charles Darwin 1809-1882
-H.M.S Beagle- 1831-1836-ship Darwin made his voyage on-Galapagos(1835) -
Capt. Robert Fitz-Roy
-creationist and phrenologist -wanted to refute evolutionary theory
Alfred Russell Wallace 1823-1913
data from the amazon to support evolutionary theory
**On the Origins of Species by Means of Natural Selection-1859
-Darwin's book -surplus of offspring=struggle for survival -individual differences with survival value are passed to later generations(natural selection)
**Descent of Man-1871
-humans are part of the animal kingdom humans=animals -continuity of species- opened the door to comparative psych.
**Expressions of emotions in man and animals (book by Darwin)
-animal emotions are universal and have survival value -James C. Browne=psychiatrist and animal photographer -insanity=human at a primitive stage of development -insane people=strongest passions insane people cant blush due to poor circulation
Biographical sketch of an infant-1877
detailed acct. of Darwins infant son
App. of evolutionary theory in psych
-men are physically and psychologically more variable than women. -women have an evolved deficit (menstrual cycle forces women into mediocracy)
Leta Stetter Hollingworth 1886-1939
-PhD in education from Columbia in 1916 -male and female infants are not variable on height, weight, or cranial measures. -male achievements are due to greater vocation options available to men -motor and mental abilities dont diminish menstruation -prestigious career in the study of mental deficiency and giftedness.
Herbert Spencer 1820-1903
-"survival of the fittest"- organism with the most adaptive traits will survive and reproduce -social darwinism -principles of psych-1855
-obsession with counting-whenever you can, count. attracts women -statistical inquiries into the effectiveness of prayer-1872 -**co-relations and their measurements-1888- -regression & analysis -median & percentile
Measurement and study of intelligence (Galton)
-study of individual differences -hereditary genius-1869-"nature-nurture" controversy. -genetics-intelligence is product of ancestors
-improvement of living organisms through selective breeding -proposed couples be scientifically paired -gov. should pay couples with desireable characteristics to marry
**English Men and Science: their nature and nurture-1874 Galtons book
-Galton sent questionnaires to 100 fellow scientists-1st to use questionnaire in psych -conclusion= it wasnt nature, it was nurture. most people said no i was not born a scientist. -not what Galton expected.
Inquiries into human faculty and its development-1883 Galton
-developed 1st test batteries(series of related tests) for twins -MZ(one-egged, identical) twins are similar even when reared apart. -DZ(2-egged) twins are dissimilar even when reared together -Measurement and study of intelligence=word association test
mental imagery Galton
-great variability even among scientists -thought mental immagery would correlate intelligence but instead found scientists couldnt form images-variability
-American Psych -prestigious family: William James of Albany-grandfather Henry James Sr.-father William James born in 1842
James professional career
-Lawrence Scientific School at Harvard in 1861 -expedition with Louis Agassiz to Brazil in 1865 -MD in June 1869 -experiences intense 2 year depression after graduation **-"My first act of free will shall be to believe in free will" -brought him out of depression -Alice Howe Gibbens-Boston school teach and later wife -entire career at Harvard, propular lecturer -1st American professor to ask for student evaluations
"relations between behavior, psychology, and physiology" -1875
-first psych course offered in America-class wasnt officially on record -established first American psych LAB at Harvard-1875
-textbook publisher -asked William James to write a psych textbook. -**Principles of Psychology-1890- James 1st textbook -**Psychology: Briefer Course-1892-a.k.a Jimmy-parts of the bible combines to make book, brought money to James -Talks to Teachers-1899-last revision, how to teach psych
-individualism-importance of individual experiences -pluralism -free will -moralism
-"the one and the many" -pluralistic universe-1909=book -"nothing includes everything...the word "and" trails along after every sentence..something always escapes"
pluralistic methodologies for psychology
-Questionnaire Method-Galton structuralism-"brass instrument -psych"-psychologist has more interest in technology rather than patient-comparative psychology -psychic-endless fascination with the paranormal
Free Will James
"Dilemma of Determinism" 1884 hard vs. soft determinism
-easy going vs. strenuous lifestyle -energies of men-1907-second wind -Varieties of religious experience-1902-1st to study psych of religion
-from the principles of psychology -James eventually lost interest in psych and moved onto philopsophy ="common sense psychologist"
-habit makes everyday tasks automatic and keeps life running smoothly-more of your life that is habitual the more time your have for other things. -"everyday challenge yourself to something you wouldnt usually do"-motivational psych. -habit is involved in brain plasticity-establish good habits when young, take longer when older
The Self-material self James
material self- everything in physical nature about you. The ways you present yourself-clothes, books, music, etc. -billboard to the world, dont deny it, indulge in it.
-we have multiple social selves -we have a different "self" for each person we know -nicknames=names for our social selves
-internal -unlike other selves, who you are inside when not around others, not trying to impress people. -core essence of who you are as a human -basis for will and mortality sometimes selves have tensions or struggles-may compete
"memories" primary memory-has a fast decay secondary memory-if rehearsal is used tip of the tongue phenomena
Emotions Carl Lange-1834-1900 James-Lange theory of emotion
-bodily changes occur before perception of emotion ex- see a bear, heart beats really fast, then your afraid
Granville Stanley Hall 1849-1924
-American psych after William James -1st phD in Psych(1878-Harvard) -1st American to study w/ Wundt -established a psych lab at Johns Hopkins-1883 -1st editor of American Journal of Psych-1887, 1st psych journal in America -1st president of Clark university-1889 produced 81 phds in 30 years at clarrk -founded and 1st president of american psych association-1892 -1st to introduce psychoanalysis to Americans-freud and jung visited clark in 1909.
Halls Contributions to Psych
-**"Contents of Childrens Minds"-1883- 1st questionnaire in US."Child Study Movement" w/ John Dewey -**1st to attempt to talk to children of child studies -Pedagogical Seminary-1891- 1st dev. psychology journal -wrote "adolesence" 1904-strong Darwinian influence -senescene-last half of life-1922 -psych of religion
Hugo Musterberg 1863-1916
-PhD from Wundt in 1885 -MD in 1887 -chosen to replace James at Harvard Psych Lab as director-1892 -advanced applied psych w/functional emphasis -disliked theory of the unconscious motivation -president of the APA-1898
clinical psych Musterberg
-psychotherapy-1909-emphasis on physiological cause -directive approach-therapist is the agent of change.(especially with assurance and hypnosis) -stressed individual differences over nomothetic ones.
Legal Psychology Musterberg
**"on the witness stand"1898-early classic book on forensic psych-eyewitness memories are subjective -criminal behavior=product of envn not hereditary -study guilt by physiological processes(blood pressure, heart rate, eye movements (lie detector test)
industrial psych Musterberg
-business psych -psychology and industrial efficiency-book -employee selection-simulations of human performance("Tasks on miniature") -marketing and advertising-best effect-repetition of product would increase public awareness -"social sins of advertising"
Francis Sumner 1895-1954
-home-schooled by father bc African American-no school would accept him -PhD from Hall-1920- at Clark University-1st African American PhD in US
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