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Rutgers University - New Brunswick/Piscataway
Sports Psychology 301
Sports Psychology 301
Rutgers University - New Brunswick/Piscataway
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kids play games cuz...
Dr. Feigley was a cheerleader T/F
games to establish teams, go goes first, or gets first choice
cluster 1: games to start games
ex. rock paper scissors, thumbsies(w/ bat) others
games found to be neighborhood specific
diff rules by diff kids, kids make rules up as go along
cluster 2: street games
ex. red light green light, wall-ball, 4 square
games played in formal setting such as schools. lg. # of children, learned BY ADULTS adults make rules
cluster 3: teacher led games
ex. beater-go-round, blob, duck duck goose, steal the bacon
somewhat misleading title since games are really not "new" but can you determine "newness" in games
cluster 4: new games
ex. toe fencing, the blob, last detail w/ partner
theme of the New Games
Everybody plays; play hard; play fair; nobody hurt
games w/ emphasis on cooperation rather than competition
cluster 5: cooperative games
ex. stand up w/ whole class, lab game, musical hoops, infinity volleyball
no emphasis on winning or learning, but working together
modified version of indoor soccer w/ ref, cheerleaders, and an audience
cluster 6: traditional sports
purpose of games in cluster 1:
developmental changes as you get older found in cluster 1
tend to pick friends first
street games characteristics
make up rules as you go along
everyone enforces rules
can be competitive
can be skill related
teacher led games
coaches an players rank player simultaneously
theme of "new" games:
everybody plays;play hard;play fair;nobody hurt
**attitudes were new
worked together to perform a task/keep task going
not a SPORT, but PLAY
essential ingredient for sport
in sport you must
meant to give players a break...
ex. out golfing, give your buddy a "mulligan"
most common role in traditional sport is being a ...
games are consisted of two things:
values & attitudes
in adult supervised games...
teachers make rules
in unsupervised games...
players make/enforce rules
external benefits of sport
external constraints characteristics:
external benefits of winning
can lead to cheating they benefits outweigh the desire to win
quote regarding competition vs. cooperation
"competition is the best form of cooperation"
---not playing by the rules, not playing sport
4 things awards can be given out for:
coming out ahead of others (winning)
Dr. Feigley's coaching program for coaches
**IN NOTES! KNOW IT!!
should sport be designed for children?
should children be designed for sport?
--look @ age
--skill in specific sport
playing team sports first is beneficial over individual sport first because...
develops personal responsibility
and makes aTEAM effort
recognizing talent in young athletes and how they will be when they're older
structure of the sport b/w informal, organized, and corporate
rules are diff.
diff. motives b/w ea.
social systems are different
informal sport is for the....
organized sport is for...
corporate sport is for...
it can be your job
variety of sport is better at young age...why?
not specialize too early
winning & high-level performance
traditional criteria for successq
forms of success can be:
# of participants
kids coming back next season
biggest mistake Feigley ever made
turned down young lady for gymnastics team---future Olympic champion
drop out rates increasing
implications of sport...
when it comes to changing physical dimensions of the game
smaller is not always better
most difficult cognitive domain to understand
off-sides in soccer--abstract position
little kids don't understand
it is a myth that little kids have a different impact of winning and losing..T/F?
what's fair as far as what I want?
depends on social comparison--how your doing vs. someone else
ex. 7 y/o
ex. if I CAN do it--it's easy
if I CAN'T do it--it's too hard
ages when one realizes diff. b/w trying hard and being talented
10,11,12--learn that it takes more
skill most related to sports skills
#1 predictor of youth sport success
relative age effect--what part of the year you were born
13 yr. old
can be taller on one side of body than other side
being born in.... has advantage over being born in.....
January over December
--Relative Age Effect
kids usually drop out of sport around age ????
lost interest/not "fun" anymore
--why do you lose interest?
an event happens beforehand--identifies what is going to be fun about sport
ex. "I think I can do it if I feel I am good at it"
what do you work for?
things done w/ high freq. reinforce what you do w/ low frequency
ex. eat to drink, drink to eat
farm animals example!**
**Dr. Feigley doesn't believe 8 y/o's play to be "physically fit"
negative reasons why kids drop out of sport
who is at most risk for dropping out of sport/
ability-oriented**--"I want to be the best"
--but if not the best, they will drop out
most chronic stressed in sport
"survivors"--reserves--no playing time but are on the team
--don't want to be labeled as "quitter"
--parents have huge impact on this
in your control, master skill w/in your ability level
ex. got stronger, learned to swing bat
out of your control, contributes to outcome of game
ex. won game, became nationally ranked, depends on your ability
is a mastery goal, but has no PRIMARY focus
ex. got stronger
can be misused
treat ability as...
changeable---can't do it right now, work on it and you will!
which is best? competition vs. cooperation
cannot have_____ w/out ______
competition w/out cooperation
"competition is the highest form of cooperation"
fair comp. cannot occur unless..
competitors agree to follow same rules or compete for same
change nature of game from who can score more points to who can cheat better
usually w/in the players control
--must be taught!
degree to which activities are cooperative vs. competitive
NOT absolute characteristics of the activity
cooperation vs. competition
can modify any activity to be more cooperative or more competitive depends on...
purpose of activity
needs of participants
too competitive preludes
too cooperative may lead to a ...
"group think", conformity, and undermining of personal achievement
must understand 2 things of cooperation vs. competition
costs and benefits
see how well you do compared w/ others, but may lose or friend eliminated
everyone gets to play and equipment is shared, but may not earn individual credit for group's success
creative thinking often begins w/ a fresh perception of an old idea**8
children are not mini adults
characteristics differ @
program modifications should stem from
knowing children's needs @ diff. stages of development
2 approaches to youth sport
structure of youth sport programs(sociological)
developmental characteristics of children (psychological)
implications of definitions of excellence
fewer older beginners
standardizatoin of training
overtraining/pediatric sport med
organized sport is
conservative; slow to change
dominant over action
responsible for rule enforcement organized sport
fairness/decisions organized sport made by
minimum time limit w/ very young at what position
3 child development patterns
ability to understand abstract concepts develops ...
b/w 7 and 12 y/o---cognitive domain
when should kids start competitive sports?
no single, right age
readiness depends on...
social comparison ability--7 y/o
cognitive capacity to differentiate effort/ability
cognitive capacity to differentiate task difficulty
--skipping/hopping most important!!***
1st 2 months of eligibility vs. last 2 months=
8x more likely to succeed
psycho-social domains:--why kids quit?
--must examine motives to enter and to exit sport
3 reasons kids play sports
perceived competency--challenge, learn new skills, social comparisons
perceived competency predicts:
who has fun
who is mentally tough
who stays in sport?
ability to distinguish b/w effort an ability
under 6-cannot distinguish
over 12y/o--adult-like ability w/ lmtd experiences
8-11 y/o prefer
adult sources of info
12-14 y/o prefer
peer-based social comparisons
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