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Which of the following refers to the way in which the criminal law should be enforced (p.89)
Which of the following penal sanctions is used primarily to prevent undesired conduct and to provide retribution? (p.90)
Which penal sanctions are intended to control future conduct in the best interests of the entire community? (p.90)
It was the common-plea decisions made by judges in eyre that formed the body of legal precedent that became known as the: (p.
In case law, the decision becomes a potential basis, or ____, for deciding the outcomes of similar cases in the future. (p.92
Which of the following are explorations or inspections, by law enforcement officers,of homes, premises, vehicles, or persons,
7. Administrative or regulatory agencies are important to the criminal law because: (p.97)
Habitual violations of their rules may be addressed through criminal proceedings
A crime is a violation of the ________ of a political jurisdiction. (p.88)
Which of the following refers to the legitimate source of criminal law? (p.88)
Most of the procedural, or due process rights, given to criminal suspects or defendants in the United States are found in: (p
The Bill of Rights
Which of the following refers to the scope of criminal law? (p.89)S
There are at least three different reasons why the U.S. Supreme Court did not make the 14th Amendment incorporate the Bill of
1. There is little evidence that supporters of the Fourteenth amendment intended it to incorporate the Bill of Rights.
By 1937, a series of court decisions had established the precedent that the due process clause of the Fourteenth Amendment did not
The ____ protects Americans from “unreasonable searches and seizures.” (p.96)
The criminal law of the United States, for the most part, is derived from the laws of: (p.91)
The principle of using precedents to guide future decisions in court cases is called: (p.93)
The ____ guarantees a right to a speedy and public trial. (p.112)
The ____ states that excessive bail shall not be required. (p.117)
A ____ is a written order from a court directing law enforcement officers to conduct a search or to arrest a person. (p.97)
Earlier in American history, two forms of police protection began to evolve—the ____ in the villages, towns, and cities; and
The "watch" and The "sheriff"
An arrest warrant is issued only if substantial and trustworthy evidence supports what two conclusions? (p.99)
1. A violation of the law has been committed
The person to be arrested committed the violation
The standard of proof necessary to find a defendant guilty in a criminal trial is? (p.103)
Beyond a reasonable doubt
Which statements were true of the first black police officers? (p.133)
They were slaves (is not true)
Under the tithing system, groups of 10 families (or a tithing) would follow three of the principles listed below. Which one d
1. Follow the law
Keep the peace in their areas
Bring violators to justice
According to Peel, the main function of the police was to ____ by ____ of the community. (p.130)
Prevent crime;Preventative control
After the Civil War, municipal police officers began to take on the characteristics of today's police. Three of these charact
1. Wear uniforms
Early American citizens ____ the formation of the first police departments. (p.132)
The vast majority of American law enforcement agencies are: (p.131)
The basic concepts of American law enforcement and criminal justice originated in: (p.129)
Three emphasis areas of community policing are? (p.138)
Fighting crime does not belong
Which was the first American city to create a paid and unified municipal police force? (p.132)
In the South, the earliest form of policing was the: (p.134)
The slave codes held slaves responsible for their crimes and other acts that were not crimes if committed by free persons. Th
Enslaved people could not learn skilled trades (does not belong)
The Statute of Winchester formalized the ____ system of protection. (p.129)
One similarity between the slave patrols and the constable-watch system was that:
People could hire others to perform their duties for them.
August Vollmer advocated three principles to professionalize American policing. They were? (p.136)
He believe that citizens needed training in methods of self-policing (does not belong)
At various times in American history, local police have acted in several different roles. Three of the roles listed in your t
Firefighters (does not belong)
By the 1970s, research began to show three findings. They were? (p.138)
neighborhood-based policing projects had high success rates because of low costs, administrative efficiency, high citizen interest.
Breaking up a fight, holding back a crowd at a sporting event, or intervening in a domestic dispute before it gets violent ar
Order maintenance or peacekeeping
State-level law enforcement officers include three groups. They are? (p.161)
1. State police
Department of public safety
For most people, the only personal experience they have with the criminal justice process is contact with a: (p.155)
Your textbook describes four characteristics that generally define the role of the police. They are? (p.185)
1. The police perform ongoing education roles
John Broderick classified police officers by their degree of commitment to maintaining order and their respect for due proces
1. Enforcers-order, with little respect for due process
2. Idealists-both social order and due process
3. Optimists-due process, with little priority given to social order.
4. Realists-little emphasis is given to due process or social order
Which of the following is unquestionably the most time-consuming and resource-intensive task of any police agency? (p.191)
Police detectives seem to have a number of advantages over patrol officers, and seven of these advantages are listed in your
1. Don't have to wear uniforms
Have anonymity during work hours if they choose it
Have steady work hours, often daytime hours with weekends off
Have offices and desks
Enjoy the prestige associated with the position
Many agencies, detectives receive h
Patrols that are “systematically unsystematic” and observant in an attempt to both deter and ferret out crime on their beats
In ____ patrol, officers are given guidance on how to use their patrol time, which is often based on the results of crime ana
The idea of ____ remains very popular in the South and the West.
When an entire patrol section is instructed to make numerous traffic stops and field interrogations, the practice is referred
Your textbook names five roles that investigators may play in a police department. They are? (p.195)
1. Traffic homicide and hit-and-run accident investigators in the traffic sectiono.
Undercover investigators in narcotics, vice, and violent gang cases.
Internal affairs investigators conducting investigations of alleged crimes by police personnel.
Criminal investigation has been defined as a lawful search of people and things to achieve three of the following goals. The
1. To reconstruct the circumstances of an illegal act
Apprehend or determine the guilty party
Aid in the state's prosecution of the offender
Your textbook gives three reasons why, despite low crime-solving rates by detectives, many police departments continue to emp
1. Detectives have interrogation and case-presentation skills that assist in prosecution.
Technical knowledge, such as knowing about burglary tools, does help in some investigations and prosecutions.
Law enforcement executives can assign detectives t
With DNA profiling, a unique genetic profile can be derived from ____ found at the scene of a crime or on a victim. (p.198)
Other bodily substances
Your textbook names three distinct functions of DNA profiling. They are listed below. These distinct functions are? (p.198)
1. Linking or eliminating identified suspects to a crime
identifying "cold hits," whereby a sample from a crime scene is matched against numerous cases in a DNA database and positive match is made.
Clearing convicted rapists and murderers years after
Your textbook names three reasons why many victims of cybercrime fail to report these crimes to authorities. Which of the fol
1. Fear of loss of the public's confidence in the organization
Attention to vulnerability that a crime report would attract
Shame of not providing adequate security to protect trusted assets.
The knowledge to carry out cybercrimes is readily available at hacker: (p.203)
Your textbook describes several ways in which cybercriminals can illegally access, manipulate, or steal computer data. They a
1. Alter computer records at financial business, and educational institutions
Educational institutions illegally enter computer systems and introduce viruses or worms
Illegally transfer millions of dollars to their accounts
Each year, nearly twice as many people are ____ as are ____. (p.204)
Killed in automobile accidents on streets and highways of the nation, than are murdered.
Some of the more important functions of traffic units are: (p.204-205)
1. To educate motorists in a community about traffic safety and proper driving procedures.
Enforce traffic laws, particularly when violations of those laws cause traffic accidents.
Recommend traffic engineering changes that will enhance the flow of t
The professional model of policing, which police followed in the decades before community policing, rested on three foundatio
1. Preventive patrol
Quick response time
One of the interesting findings of foot patrol research was that foot patrol officers were better able to deal with: (p.214)
Minor annoyances (rowdy youths,panhandlers, and abandoned cars)
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