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Who: Europeans, African Americans, Land owners
Where: America, Europe, Africa
What: People in Europe who wanted to come to America. Negotiated with merchants/people in Europe, signing contracts to work in America, in hopes of eventually being free and owning land. Contracts usually lasted 4-7 years. After their contract was up, then supplies would be provided for them to become landowners themselves, but many were tricked into renewing their contracts.
Why: Haven’t developed slavery just yet. This was one of the first early versions of slavery. Proved more expensive (landowners had to pay for passage, and give bonus when their contracts were up) vs. slavery (don’t have to do shit, or pay shit.)
Who: African Americans, merchants
Where: Africa->Atlantic Ocean-> America
What: In africa, typ. By merchant. Captured soilders in wars, or enemy. Brought to rival cities, then sold to merchants.-> Deportation to coast. Put in pen. ->Captains go down and bargain.-> Merchants purchase the slaves. ->Taken across atlantic. ->Sold on auction blocks. Sold in packagees( young, males, and older) [younger- wait to get older, older- wont work as hard. Middle age were ideal.)
Saw them as comodadies.. Younger and older cost less. Someone in 20s would be more: Muscle mass, disability. Inspect like how we inspect livestock now.
The Yamasee War
Who: Creeks, Yamasee, Cherokee, South Carolinians, British
Where: South Carolina
What: Fought between south carolina and near by native groups
Yamasees ultimate middle men, enslave other natives to euro and sell them to get guns, ammo, and other goods.
System started going whack.
Europeans wanted more slaves. So made them fight more war. More war= more slaves.
Yamasees fear that south carolina would turn on them and sell them.
Before could happen, kill the trader in their village and attack south carolina, get other natives to join
Cherokees don’t join.
Why: event that signifies a transition from native american slavery, to african american slavery.
Because war was so devastating, and plantations were so expensive, if natives attack plantations and destroy them, people loose all their shit.
Must have natives at peace so plantation can be at peace and bring in slaves to produce more and work longer.
Realize cant have natives attacking all the time, so stop using native slaves. Afraid of the threat natives bring.
Virginia Negro Acts
Who: African Americans
What: Codes/laws against African American slaves. Slowly stripped slaves of rights. Making them property, not people.
Why: Keep slaves separated from whites. Clear distinction between them. Didn’t want blacks to overthrow the whites. limited what they could do.
Who: blacks, militia, native americans, whites
Where: South Carolina
What: blacks outnumbered whites 2 to 1. Slaves went around to plantations to get others to rebel(80 slaves ), went to the sanctuary in Spanish florida. 20 slaves revolt and take over arsenal. Battle: 50 blacks and 25 whites are killed.
Why: Important because people used to believe slaves didn’t resist. Because most didn’t focus on the matter. Important because Highlights large scale rebelllion that occured
Weapons of the Weak
Who: African american slaves, slave owners, cooks
When: 1700s-early 1800s
Where: the southern states
What: small acts of resistance. Resisted on daily baises. One of the ways- break tools, work slow, poison food, run away ect.
Why: their way of getting back at their master. May not have been major rebellions, it was sign of resistance. Change the way we think about slaves, usually think they’re weak but really are strong. Not taught that slaves were strong and found ways to fight back.
Who: British, Benjamin Franklin, Iroquois
What: Effort to get the colonies on the same page. First efforts of building an intercolonial government. Organize war effort. To be more efficient with its alliances with natives. Wanted/tried to make Iroquois an ally.
Why: Albany congress helped create a unity between the colonies. Lots of issues needed to be worked out before thinking about becoming united. Colonies all had different loyalties, and sought to speak with one voice.
Who: John Locke, colonists in Royal Society of London, Ben Franklin, printing press
When: 18th century
Where: Europe, the colonies
What: Thinkers sought to apply philosophy and reason to social, political, and economic questions. Reason over religion. The search for universal truths based on scientific methods and principles.
Why: Enlightenment people searching for universal truth. Believed their society was the pinnacle of all. Thought they were better than everyone else
Who: French, British, Iroquois, William Pitt
Where: from Virginia to Pennsylvania
What: French vs. british over territorial disputes. Fighting over ohio. british invest lots of money into war to win. French choose sugar islands and give up
Why: leads to American revolution because british poor from war, so think colonists owe them, and start with all the taxes, angering the colonists.
The Great Awakening
Who: Europeans, preachers, colonists
Where: the colonies
What: Preaching over theology. Mobile Preachers, multi-denominational(preached to everyone). Trying to get people excited over religion.
Why: Raised questions about the validity of using religion to explain the world. Trying to unite the different groups.
What: Delaware prophet who preached an end to European dependency. Spoke out against intertribal warfare and alcohol. Pan-indianism: Indians should ban together
Preached that natives must strip themselves of the colonial influence and go back to native culture. Go back to traditional ways.
Why: significant because pan-indianism wasn’t taught and most people mostly just think the Indians just accepted everything and didn’t fight back, but they did. Hard for them to come together and fight back. Strategy to try to fight back.
Who: neolin, Pontiac, Ottawa Indians, Europeans, British
When: may 1763
What: Pontiac influenced by Neolin. Attacked Fort Detroit. Different tribes fought together and captured small forts, larger forts hold out.
Why: British eventually signs treaties with Indians that broke up the unity.
Who: Colonist, British, native Americans
Where: Appalachian mountains.
What: imaginary line drawn on the Appalachian Mountains. Separates east coast (colonists) and the “indian land”. Comes from Pontiac’s resistance.
Why: People upset over it because colonists came for land, and they needed more land. British still trying to pay off debt so don’t want to get into anymore costly wars, so this is supposed to keep settlers away so there’s no problem with the Indians. But settlers saw that the fighting in the war was to open up those lands. Also important because British are looking for stability and growth, but for colonist, only expansion.
Who: British, Colonists
Where: colonies that british owned
What: Tax on anything that was made of paper. If tax was paid, then the paper would receive a stamp.
Why: Collecting the tax was to maintain the colonies and pay off the debt. Colonist argued and questioned if the British truly had authority to impose those taxes.
Boston Tea Party
Who: Colonists, Thomas Hutchinson. British
Where: Boston, Massachusetts
What: Colonists, Sons of Liberty, dressed up as Mohawk Indians, and snuck on board and dumped tea into the ocean.
Why: British lowered the tax, just wanting people to pay it. Colonists were outraged, ports realized the tension so sent the ships back, but Hutchinson had economic investments in the tea so didn’t ship it back. Dressed as Mohawk Indians as symbols of America, asserting the New American Identity.
Second Continental Congress
What : Tried forming an actual govt. Takes many of the steps of forming a united government. Focuses on parliament. Argues king is ignorant of situation and if he knew he would ament the relationships. Formed the Continental Army, post office, paper money, but did not declare independence
Why: Taking slow, short steps towards independence. Major decision that made a big impact was the choice of George Washington as Commander of Colonial forces. This decision was one of the many the smoothed relations between North and South
Who: Thomas Paine, King, Colonists
What: failed tax collector that wrote Common Sense, Arguing for independence and against the king. Makes argument why colonists should be independent.
Why: Took enlightenment ideas and boils them down to a very simple language. Gains more and more popular support for independence. Able to reach out and put the language out in such simple terms that everyday people could understand.
Declaration of Independence
Who: Thomas Jefferson, Delegates, John Dickinson, Robert Morris
When: july 4, 1776
What: List of what the Colonists stood for.
Why: gives insight into the political theory and republican ideology. Contract theory of govt. influenced by John Locke’s “Social Contract”, legitimate govt. rests on an agreement between people and their rulers.
Battle of Saratoga
Who: British, Americans
When: Sept. 19, 1777
Where: Saratoga, New York
What: 556 british dead, americans half the losses. With the victory at Saratoga, the colonists gained respectability and the French officially recognize them and cemented an alliance. Freance and Spain added its wealth and naval power to help the colonists.
Why: marked the climax of the Saratoga campaign giving a decisive victory to the Americans over the British in the American Revolutionary War. For British, war suddenly global. Costs rose from 4 million pounds to 20 million. Domestic dissent over the war broke out in Britain.
Articles of Confederation
When: created: 1777 ratified: 1781
What: a document signed amongst the 13 colonies that established u.s.a as a confederation of sovereign states, served as first constitution
Why: frames of the new govt. were wary of establishing a strong central govt. Power to local govt. avoids oppression
Who: African americans
Where: Nova Scotia
What: Fought with the “black pioneers”. Sought to claim a farm in Nova Scotia. Member of one of the british units. Fought with them in order to be free.
Why: represents the African soldiers in the war. Using him to talk about that for most Africans, except for those in the north, was how they fought for freedom
Where: North of ohio river
What: turning territories into states. The mechanism the country comes up with to incorporate other lands. Expanding to new territory.
Why: Cause its how we figure out how to make the country larger by expanding.
Who: alexander Hamilton, James Madison. John Jay, colonists
What: articles and essays written promoting the ratification of the constitution. Argued for a strong centralized government. Opposed the bill of rights
Why: if it wasn’t for the federalists, we wouldn’t have had the anti federalists who went for the bill of rights, guaranteeing every persons own rights
Who: Daniel Shay
When: august 1786
What: elites started to push hard for the collection of debt in hard currency. Number of these homeowners who couldn’t pay the taxes and were in debt were upset with the government. Former officers who had fought in the war decided they had enough. 200 army veterans with guns march to the N.H. capital and demand debt reform. Farmers lost their farms because of debt. Angry at the heavy tax causing the forclosures. 1,500 farmers shut down debt courts.
Why: signified that something needed to happen, the country was on the verge of rebellion and anarchy, Showed that the government was weak and going through crisis, and middle class had too much power.
What: Antifederalists were scared that the government would become to strong so created a document that sought to guarantee certain individual freedoms. Guaranteed to never loose these rights.
Why: maintains person freedom and liberties and keeps government from having too much power.
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