Last Modified: 2011-10-31
- communication patterns differed based on whether subjects were given cooperative or competitive instructions
- students receivin competitive instructions showed closed communication & mistrust
- students receivin cooperative instructions communicated openly & shared info
- Cooperation produces higher levels of achievement than competition.
- Cooperation produces a higher level of achievement than individualistic behavior.
- Require little equipment or money
- Emphasize participation by all players
- Players learn from mistakes rather than hide from them
- a runner competing in a 100-yard dash
- a swimmer working out with his coach watching him
- specific behaviors to be performed
- lvls of proficiency to be achieved
- performers' current lvl of proficiency in desired skills
- inappropriate focus
- motivation to perform
- success produces higher lvls of intrinsic motivation than failure
- males exhibit higher lvls of intrinsic motivation after success than after failure
- The type of reward was important regarding its effects on intrinsic motivation
- The expected-reward condition had the lowest levels of intrinsic motivation (compared to no reward and unexpected rewards)
- Physical appearance
- Body Position
- Stop communicating
- Communicate the solution
- Rely on nonverbal cues to communicate
- It helps to know the goals of my teammates
- It is scary to open up, but this makes things easier
- Messages should separate fact from fiction
- Verbal and nonverbal messages should be congruent
- The receiver fails to listen
- The receiver misinterprets the message
- The messages are inconsistent
- Social loafing
- The coach's manner in communicating her views to the athletes
- The degree of compatibility between the coach's and athlete's skill assessments of the athlete
- Higher normative expectations are associated with higher levels of cohesion.
- More sacrifices are made by players when cohesion is high.
- Friendship choices within the group
- The presence or absence of cliques in groups
- The extent of group attraction
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