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A social process thru which performance is rewarded in terms of the collective achievements of the group
Basketball & football are examples of which classifications of games?
Cooperative means-- competitive ends
Deutch's study on competition & cooperation
communication patterns differed based on whether subjects were given cooperative or competitive instructions
students receivin competitive instructions showed closed communication & mistrust
students receivin cooperative instructions communicated openly & shared info
Cooperation produces higher levels of achievement than competition.
Cooperation produces a higher level of achievement than individualistic behavior.
Cooperative reward structures more effective
during work on tasks that are complex and that involve problem solving
Only thing that worked to bring the campers back together (Sherif & Sherif)
Characteristics of cooperative games
Require little equipment or money
Emphasize participation by all players
Players learn from mistakes rather than hide from them
Competitive situation (Marten's definition of objective competitive situation)
a runner competing in a 100-yard dash
a swimmer working out with his coach watching him
Would not support cooperative learning env
Extrinsic rewards emphasized
Key part of Marten's definition of competition
Feedback can provide
specific behaviors to be performed
lvls of proficiency to be achieved
performers' current lvl of proficiency in desired skills
Additive approach to relationship btwn intrinsic & extrinsic motivation
Intrinsic plus extrinsic motivation equals more motivation
Prevents flow from occuring
motivation to perform
Weinberg's study on intrinsic motivation in a competitive setting
success produces higher lvls of intrinsic motivation than failure
males exhibit higher lvls of intrinsic motivation after success than after failure
Recent study on the relationship btwn holding scholarships and lvls of intrinsic motivation in collegiate athletes, Amorose, Horn, & Miller found
Athletes on scholarship had lower levels of intrinsic motivation in general than did athletes not on scholarship
Changes in intrinsic motivation occurred primarily because of
Receiving a reward that provides feedback concerning an athlete's sense of competence
The informational aspect of reward
A study on reducing inappropriate tennis behaviors using behavior modification techniques revealed
Inappropriate behaviors were significantly reduced for all five players
Research by psycho Edward Deci
Extrinsic rewards undermine intrinsic motivation
Study by Lepper & Greene (effects of external rewards on intrinsic motivation)
The type of reward was important regarding its effects on intrinsic motivation
The expected-reward condition had the lowest levels of intrinsic motivation (compared to no reward and unexpected rewards)
NOT a type of communication
Nonverbal cues transmitted via
Shouldn't do during a confrontation
Communicate the solution
Rely on nonverbal cues to communicate
After taking Sullivan's communication training, athletes had the following reactions to the workshop
It helps to know the goals of my teammates
It is scary to open up, but this makes things easier
Nonverbal bhvrs that communicate interest & attention
Maintaining eye contact
Guidline for sending effective messages
Messages should separate fact from fiction
Verbal and nonverbal messages should be congruent
Not a purpose of communication
Breakdowns in communication occur because
The receiver fails to listen
The receiver misinterprets the message
The messages are inconsistent
Percentage of the time during communication spent listening
When there is a communication breakdown, people believe the problem resides with
the other person
Christian Buys, several negative aspects of group formation
Having athletes eat together or live together is an example of which factor that is important in developing an effective team climate?
One way athletes interpret whether they are being treated fairly
The coach's manner in communicating her views to the athletes
The degree of compatibility between the coach's and athlete's skill assessments of the athlete
In Asch's experiment of line-comparison judgments, _____ of the subjects conformed to the group norm.
Having members of an exercise class all wear special T-shirts with special logos is a way of enhancing group
Team building is considered part of which stage of team development?
Role clarity refers to
Understanding exactly what your role is for the team
The key ingredient(s) in Steiner's model of productivity
The losses due to faulty group processes and their impact on actual productivity
If a rookie tried to take charge and exert leadership despite there being a veteran leader on the team, this would be considered a violation of
A representation of how an individual perceives the interrelationships among the team members
Higher normative expectations are associated with higher levels of cohesion.
More sacrifices are made by players when cohesion is high.
The number of athletes holding scholarships and the eligibility requirements are examples of which antecedent of cohesion?
NOT an antecedent to cohesion according to Carron's model
Relationship between cohesion and performance
The relationship is circular
An illustration of affiliation and attraction among team members
Barrier to cohesion
Members struggling for power
A sociogram can measure
Friendship choices within the group
The presence or absence of cliques in groups
The extent of group attraction
Which of the following is NOT one of the principles underlying the team-building model developed by Carron and colleagues
Autocratic leadership style
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