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different levels of an ecosystem food web
the process by which organic material is broken down into simpler forms of matter. The process is essential for recycling the finite matter that occupies physical space in the biome.
How does chemical cycling differ from energy flow?
· Unlike energy flow, chemical cycling involves the transfer of materials. Energy flows through and out of ecosystems, whereas chemicals are recycled within and between ecosystems.
· Every use of chemical energy involves a loss of some energy to the surroundings in the form of heat. Because so much energy is lost as heat, our ecosystem would run out of energy if it were not powered by a continuous inflow of energy from the sun.
Why is does it make more environmental sense for people to eat vegetables, rather than beef?
· Eating meat is both environmentally and economically expensive. Producing meat for human consumption usually requires more land to be used for growing, a greater use of pesticides, fertilizers, and water for irrigation. Plus, when we eat vegetables we are primary consumers and gain more energy.
Relate human impact on nutrient cycling to short and long-term food availability.
·If humans continue to pollute the atmosphere, bodies of water, etc. the nutrient cycles will be affected which will ultimately affect our food supply in both the short and long term by reducing them greatly
an animal that mainly eats other animals
A chemical process in which macromolecules are broken down by the chemical addiction of water molecules to the bonds linking their monomers; an essential part of digestion. A hydrolysis reaction is the opposite of a dehydration reaction.
A quantity of heat equal to 1,000 calories. Used to measure the energy content of food, it is usually called a “Calorie”.
An organic nutrient that an organism requires in very small quantities. Vitamins generally function as coenzymes.
an unsaturated fatty acid that animals need but cannot make.
An eating disorder that results in self-starvation due to an intense fear of gaining weight, even when the person is underweight.
What are the risk factors for cardiovascular disease?
· High blood pressure
· High blood cholesterol
· Being overweight
· Being physically inactive
· Having a family history of early heart disease
· Age (55 or older for women)
What is the role of diet in preventing cardiovascular disease?
· Eating a heart-healthy diet, low in cholesterol, trans fat, and saturated fat, and high in fruits and vegetables, and whole grains can reduce the risk of developing atherosclerosis.
A cell that responds to a regulatory signal, such as a hormone.
A complex, extensively branched polysaccharide made up of many glucose monomers; serves as an energy-storage molecule in liver and muscle cells.
How do hormones travel from their source to their target cell?
· Hormones are carried by the circulatory system (usually by the blood) to other parts of the body.
What allows hormone activity to target particular cell types?
· A hormone can only bind to a target cell with receptors for that specific hormone. Because hormones reach all parts of the body, the endocrine system is especially important in controlling whole-body activities. In many cases, a tiny amount of a hormone influences the activities of an enormous number of target cells in a variety of organs. Hormones trigger changes in target cells in different ways, depending on wheter the hormone is water soluble or lipid soluble.
How do activities of the hypothalamus and thyroid glands affect hunger, satiation, and metabolic rate?
What is the role of the pancreas in metabolic regulation?
How does the body maintain blood sugar homeostasis?
How do type 1 and type 2 diabetes differ in cause and treatment?
What are the roles of leptin and ghrelin in controlling hunger?
Why does leptin tend to lead to increased weight?
What life-style factors help control weight and why?
The synthesis of a polypeptide using the genetic information encoded in an mRNA molecule. There is a change of “language” from nucleotides to amino acids.
the expressed traits of an organism.
Describe the structure of the nucleic acid backbone. Why does this structure lend itself to DNA replication and transcription?
What are the roles in protein synthesis of DNA, mRNA, tRNA, and the ribosome? NOT responsible for details of translation (initiation, elongation, termination). NOT responsible for processing of eukaryotic RNA.
Why do single base pair insertions or deletions have a more drastic effect on protein sequence than do substitution mutations?
How and why does cloning of plants differ from cloning of animals?
What is the evidence that cloned animals differ in some way from those produced via the normal reproductive process?
How does the genetic information in the cells of a banteng produced by nuclear transplantation in a cow differ from the genetic information in a normal banteng?
Compare the differentiation potential of embryonic, umbilical, and adult stem cells.
the production of multiple copies of a gene
What are the major steps in recombinant DNA technology?
1. Isolate plasmids
2. Isolate DNA
3. Cut both DNAs with same enzyme
4. Mix the DNAs and join them together
5. Bacteria take up recombinant plasmids
6. Clone the bacteria
7. Find the clone with the gene of interest
8. The gene and protein of interest are isolated from the bacteria
Give examples of transgenic microbes, plants, and animals that are in commercial use.
· Vegetables: rice, corn
· Animals: Cows, Sheep, Pigs
What are the pros and cons of this approach (as opposed to traditional breeding) to genetic modification of organisms?
To make a clone a genetically identical organismfrom a mammalian cell, the cell must ______.
Which of the following best defines the term transgenic animal?
an animal containing a gene from a another species
Which of the following is the best definition for recombinant DNA?
The Human Genome Project has the potential to ______.
The world's first genetically engineered pharmaceutical product was ______.
Transgenic animals are currently used ______.
What is a difference between embryonic and adult stem cells?
At one point, you were just an undifferentiated, single cell. You are now made of many cells; some of these cells function as liver cells, some as muscle cells, some as red blood cells, while others play different roles. What name is given to the process that is responsible for this?
Ethical dilemmas raised by DNA technology and knowledge of the human genome include ______.
Homology is evidence of ______.
The original source of genetic variation that serves as the raw material for natural selection is ______.
In The Origin of Species, Darwin argued that the mechanism of descent with modification was _____.
Natural selection can be defined as ______.
Which of the following is not a requirement of natural selection?
Which of the following statements about the voyage of the Beagle ______ is true?
While on the Beagle, Darwin was influenced by a book by Charles Lyell that suggested that Earth was ______ and sculpted by geologic processes that ______ today.
What does Darwinian fitness measure?
Which of the following are homologous?
Diagram the carbon, phosphorus, and nitrogen cycles, naming and explaining reservoirs (pools) and processes. How have human activities impacted these cycles?
· Phosphate pollution, often found in fertilizers and pesticides; outflow from sewage treatment facilities and runoff of waste from livestock feedlots; these lead to reduced diversity of aquatic species and bodies of water.
How is the body able to digest food without digesting itself?
· chemical digestion proceeds safely within some kind of compartment: in this process a cell engulfs food by phagocytosis, forming a vacuole. This food vacuole then fuses with a lysosome, containing enzymes, forming a digestive compartment.
What information can you obtain from food labels?
· You can find the ingredients listed as well as the key nutrition facts. You also obtain the serving size as well as percentages of a daily value.
Why do humans eat more food, especially energy rich foods such as fats and sugars, than is good for them?
· In the past, people would gorge themselves because they never knew when their next meal would be—we have just evolved and adapted to this making it difficult for us to overcome this survival behavior, leading to a higher intake of rich foods.
Convert gaseous n2 to ammonia and nitrates
are hypoxic (low0oxygen) areas in the world’s oceans
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