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1.Recognize the unconditioned reflex
2.Add neutral stimulus to the unconditioned reflex
3.Paired stimuli become conditioned
an unconditioned response (UR)
conditioned stimulus (CS) and
conditioned response (CR)
First-order respondent conditioning
CS produces a CR (e.g. bell produces salivation)
Second-order respondent conditioning
Another neutral stimulus is paired with the CS and
also comes to elicit the CR
The neutral stimulus becomes a second CS through pairing with the first CS
Example: Pavlov yells “dinner” every time before he rings the bell
First-Order Respondent Conditioning example suzy
Suzie and Gene have a fight, and they break up. Suzie pairs Gene (CS) with fighting (US) such that the presence of Gene would elicit a CR of dislike
Second-Order Respondent Conditioning example suzy
Suzie is walking around campus and she sees Gene talking with Robin
She now pairs Robin (second-order CS) with Gene (first- order CS) such that the presence of Robin now elicits the CR (dislike)
A natural emotional response (UR) can become a CR when the US is paired with a CS
• Happiness • Pleasure
Negative examples: • Fear
• Anxiety • Anger
Present the CS repeatedly without the US
Eventually, CS will no longer elicit the CR
In other words, present a person with a dog (CS) constantly that is not barking (no US). Eventually, the dog will no longer elicit the CR of fear
Extinction: People sometimes want to get rid of the respondent conditioning that has occurred
Spontaneous Recovery of Respondent Behavior
Spontaneous Recovery: After respondent extinction has occurred, the CS may once again elicit a CR anyway... ring bell dog salivates anyway
Memories retain at least a part of what we learned in the original conditioning
The magnitude of the CR is usually smaller during spontaneous recovery and should disappear again if the US is not presented with the CS during spontaneous recovery
When he was a puppy, Sydney was almost hit by someone on a bicycle (a naturally frightening experience). Now, whenever someone rides a bicycle near him, Sydney gets really scared. However, he doesn’t get scared when other objects are near him because these stimuli were never paired with almost getting run over. What is this an example of?
In the case of Sydney, who was almost hit by a bicycle, which became a CS for him, would he be more or less likely to generalize his fear to other moving objects if he never encountered them?
Generalization of Respondent Behavior
• Generalization occurs when a number of CS’s all elicit the same CR
Example: Developing a fear of all dogs
Generalization is enhanced when a number of similar stimuli are paired initially with the US during respondent conditioning and when similar stimuli are never presented in the absence of the US
1.Consistent pairing of the CS and US (a.k.a. contingency)
2.Number of pairings
More times the CS and US appear together, the stronger the conditioning
3.Previous exposure to the CS in a neutral setting without the US makes respondent conditioning less likely
I want to do a class demonstration of respondent conditioning. I can choose either snapping my fingers or clapping my hands as the NS that will become a CS. To get strong results quickly, which should I choose?
In Watson’s experiments with little Albert, if he had presented the rat (CS), removed the rat, and made a loud noise (US), what type of conditioning would this have been?
In Watson’s experiments with little Albert, if he had made the loud noise (US) and then presented the rat (CS), what type of conditioning would this have been?
How is Respondent Conditioning Different from Operant Conditioning?
Example: Dog phobia develops due to dislike of barking
• Respondent Conditioning
• Autonomic arousal elicited by silent dogs and dog-related
stimuli even in absence of barking • Operant Conditioning
• Avoid/Escape from dogs to remove the aversive stimulus, which reinforces avoiding dogs
respondent-We have control via
Antecedents (Produce CS -> CR)
Pairing two stimuli
operant-we have control viaConsequences
(SD -> R -> SR that we manipulate)
and involves Responses contingent on consequences
Differential reinforcement of successive approximations of a target behavior
another way to say it: reinforcers guide behavior toward closer approximations to desired goal
Reinforcement of a closer approximation, and extinction of a previous approximation
Starting behavior = 1st approximation
Novel behavior = Next approximation
Until desired behavior is achieved
--small steps in a bc thatre reinforced, one after the other to create goal bx
What is the purpose of shaping?
The process of reinforcing a closer approximation while putting a previous approximation on extinction is called...
Shaping involves which two processes?
Reinforcement and extinction
Make behaviors occur at the right time (stimulus control)
Ex: Teaching Trevor to hit the baseball by providing him with a physical prompt first
Develop new behaviors or remind to engage in already learned behaviors
Ex: Teaching Natasha to read English words by verbally prompting her to read the words on the flashcards
An antecedent stimulus or event that controls a current response
Gestural (e.g., pointing)
Within-stimulus (change SD)-Altering the speed of pitches (changing
intensity of the SD)
Extrastimulus (adding a stimulus)-drawing line so he knows where to stand
Gradual removal of prompt while response occurs in presence of SD
Gradual removal of response prompt
• Methods: Least-to-most prompting and most- to-least prompting
2.Wait X number of seconds
3.May be constant or progressive, but always begins with a zero second delay
4.Present prompt if needed
SD + prompt --> R --> SR
example with index cards
SD: A question on one side
Prompt: The correct answer on the other side of the index card
R: Providing the correct answer
Fading: Look at the answer on the card less and less until you can give the answer without looking
The process of analyzing a behavioral chain by breaking it down into individual stimulus-response components
• Identify all stimuli (SDs) and responses (Rs) in a behavioral chain
Watch another individual engage in task
Engage in task yourself and record the steps
Ask an “expert” at the task to produce a task analysis
(5, 5, 5; 4-5, 4-5, 4-5; 3-4-5, 3-4-5, 3-4-5; etc.)
• Forward chaining
(1, 1, 1; 1-2, 1-2, 1-2; 1-2-3, 1-2-3, 1-2-3; etc.)
• Total task presentation
(1-2-3-4-5, 1-2-3-4-5, 1-2-3-4-5,1-2-3-4-5, etc.)
• Thenthecomponentbeforethat,andso on...
hand-over-hand guidance is provided initially. This is later faded to shadowing, and then the shadowing is faded as the individual learns to engage in the behavior independently.
Execute the whole S-R chain in each training trial
Only use total task presentation for simple tasks or with higher functioning people, and consider the teacher’s ability level
Is chaining the right procedure? Learning a new behavior vs. noncompliance
2. Task analysis of the S-R chain
3. Collect baseline data
4. Choose and implement chaining procedure
5. Continue to collect data
6. Shift to intermittent reinforcement for maintenance of newly taught complex behavior
• Picture prompts
Pictures showing the whole process
• Video modeling
Like picture prompts, but watch a video of the
• Written task analysis
Like reading a task recipe
Memorize “talk to yourself” instructions and walk yourself through the behavioral chain
Tommy is a 10-year-old boy who refuses to clean his room more than once per month. His mother thinks he does a good job but wants him to clean his room more often. She asks if BST could help increase his room-cleaning behavior. What would be the best response to give her?
“No, BST was designed to teach new behaviors, not increase existing ones.”
When conducting BST, you begin training with the _______ skills first.
Teaching new behaviors
Teaching behaviors that can be simulated in a role play
For learners who can follow instructions and imitate models
When intrusive chaining procedures are not necessary
Individually or in groups
Which of these is NOT one of the four components of BST?
The trainer providing instructions
The trainer putting undesirable behavior on extinction
The learner rehearsing the behavior The trainer providing feedback
Which of the following is NOT a type of response prompt?
All of the following are a method of task analysis except:
The process of gathering information about the antecedents and consequences that are functionally related to the occurrence of a problem behavior
• Understand why target behavior is (behavioral excess) or is not (behavior deficit) occurring
Attention, praise, reactions from others, involvement in
activities, being given things by others
Escape from aversive tasks, activities, and interactions
Automatic Positive Reinforcement
Relief from pain, anxiety, or other aversive stimulation (again, does not involve others)
Behavioral interviews*, questionnaires, rating scales
aka descriptive assessment
• Scatter plot recording – see pg. 246-247 • Not a true ABC observation method
Descriptive A-B-C recording
Checklist recording of A-B-Cs
Interval recording of A-B-Cs
(Functional analysis): experimental manipulation of antecedents and/or consequences
• Two forms:
Evaluate a number of possible functions
Test hypotheses from descriptive assessments
Test a range of possible functions
Test hypothesis from descriptive
test one condition
A good behavioral interview includes inference and interpretation.
Which ABC observation method can be used before indirect methods have been applied or hypotheses have been formed about the function of the behavior?
I have formed a hypothesis stating that Lucy lays on me because I give her attention for doing so. I want to evaluate my hypothesis using an experimental form of functional assessment. Which method should I use?
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