the guiding idea that media have minimal effects. the media is ONE influence in our lives. we choose to let the media affect us.
two-step flow of information and influence.
indirect effects theory
when the media has an effect, it is filtered through friends or social groups.
limited effectes theory
the media have minimal effects because those effects are mitigated by a variety of mediating variables.
the Experimental Section, The Communication Research Program
people have different psychological make-ups that cause media influence to vary.
people of similar backgrounds will have similar patterns of media exposure and reactions to that exposure.
people consciously and unconsciously work to preserve their existing views.
information that is inconsistent with a person's already-held attitudes creates psychological discomfort.
people expose themselves to messages that are consistent with their preexisting attitudes and beliefs.
people tend to remember best and longest messages most meaningful to them.
mentally altering a message so that its meaning is in line with a person's beliefs and attitudes.
limitations of persuasion research 1
experiments conducted in a lab and surverys are often inaccurate at measuring real life media messages
limitations of persuasion research 2
surveys and experiments are not ideal for examining the influence of media over time.
middle range theories
consist of limited sets of hypotheses that are confirmed empirical by research. add up to make a wider network of theories. deal with a variety of sociological problems. acknowledge that their scope is small and suggests the completion of other projects.
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