The structures, rules, and norms of
organizations matter for the type ofprocess and policy that results
– Individuals are rational actors; they seek to
maximize attainment of their preferences
or further their self-interest
– Policy reflects the self-interested
preferences of interested parties
– Policy is the aggregation of individual selfinterest
Policy Process/Stages Model
Why is it difficult to get issues on the
– The agenda is crowded
– Biases in the systemic and institutional
What is Policy Analysis?Kraft & Furlong
“Usually involves collecting and
interpreting information that clarifies the
causes and effects of public problems
and the likely consequences of using
one policy option or another to addressthem.”
What is Policy Analysis?Dunn
– What is the nature of the problem for which a
solution is sought?
– Which of two or more courses of action should be
chosen to solve the problem?
– What are the outcomes of choosing that course of
– Does achieving the outcomes contribute to solving
– What future outcomes can be expected if other
courses of action are chosen?
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