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1. The most justified belief is the one we should accept as true (normative aspect)
2. The most justified belief is the one that provides the simplest explanations (descriptive aspect/ occams razor)
a. The simpler answer requires the lesser number of conditions
b. The simple answer takes into account the greater number of events
Know the definition of particulars and universals. Be able to identify or give examples.
Particulars: (1) The kinds of things we are able to sense (2) A patch of red on a piece of clothing
Universals: (1) Describes something which belongs (or could belong) to a number of different objects or facts
2. The redness I see in one path is the same as the redness I see in another, even though the two patches are different.
3. Other examples: Whiteness on the wall or paper
Humanity is Patrick
Why do the nominalists reject Platonic universals?
a. To admit that we have knowledge of universals is to admit that there can be knowledge of something beyond our senses
b. When we form the idea of whiteness, he first sense two or more white things and then determine what these things have in common.
a. To choose one white thing and then to draw a connection based on resemblance is to admit a universal resemblance
b. If whiteness is just an idea in our mind, then things would cease to be white if all minds are abolished. This seems to many (not all) to be an undesirable outcome.
How does Plato argue that nothing we sense is fully real?
a. Our senses deceive us
b. So an object must fluctuate between two qualities
c. Therefore, no one can quality can be fully ascribed to an object
d. If an object has no definite quality, then it is not fully/ truly real
e. If it;s not real we can't have knowledge of it
Remember again, recollect.
- We never learn anything without what it is we are trying to learn. Learning is the act of rediscovery
1. Level for the ordinary citizen is simply obedience to public laws, this relies on proper education
2. The highest virtue which consists not only in having the right moral code, but also in knowing why the code is good
-Whenever two things share a quality, one has a form.
-However, that thing and the form of that thing share the quality, so we must posit another form of that thing to account for this new common quality.
-Since we can continue to do this infinitely, there is an infinite number of forms
Either particulars participate in the forms, or the particulars are copies of the forms.
-If the form is in this world, then this world is not merely becoming.
- If it is only a copy, then the cosmos consists of two separate universes.
1. Plato's forms are immutable and motionless
2. If this world is a copy of the forms, then where does it get motion and change
3. Plato rejects that the forms contain some notion of motion within them
1. What is holy is what is pleasing to all gods
2. So that if something is pleasing to all the Gods then it is holy
3. And if something is pleasing then it is holy to all the gods
4. So being pleasing to all the gods is necessary and sufficient for being holy
5. Yet pleasing the gods is not the same thing as being holy
6. So we have yet to define holiness
1. If anyone is ever reminded of something, then he must have known that thing at some point in time previously
2. Whenever a thing reminds us of something similar, we compare the two.
3. Is there such thing as the concept of equality
1. Soul brings life to a body
2. The opposite of the soul is death
3. The soul will not admit death nor be dead
4. God, the soul, and the form of life and can't perish
5. So when the body dis, the soul goes to Hades to be judged
1. A man can not inquire about what he already knows since the inquiry would be fake.
2. But a man can't inquire about what he doesn't know since he lacks the necessary knowledge to seek answers
3. A man can never inquire
4. But a main can fail to remember
5. When a man finds the answer he is remembering
1. A proposition can not be both true and false at the same time
2. If two people explain to us how they experience something : They are both right, we can't say someone didn't experience something
a. He's right, she's wrong
b. She's right, he's wrong
c. They are both wrong
Complete definitions of form and matter
Anything that exist in the universe
Matter = stuff
Forum=arrangement of space
Can’t have one without the other.
A rock smashed into two pieces by a hammer still takes up space and is made of rock
Aristotle believed that basic materials were earth, air, fire and water.
Referring to flux, once you have reached ultimate matter. Flux is has no definite form.
Subject- The thing about which something is being said (truly or falsely)
Form: Sum of the predicates
Final Causes = the goal that the process is trying to reach
In order to exist, you must have a material component
Formal Cause= the laws the tells the object how to develop
Efficient cause = the things that impels the development (the sculptors chisel is necessary)
1. The material cause= matter (stone, metal, ect).
2. Formal cause= laws that tell the object how to develop (the instructions)
3. Efficient cause= the thing(s) that impels the development (the sculptors chisel is necessary)
4. Final Causes - the goal that the process is trying to reach
Mechanical- type of causation found in physics.
Teleological- motivated by a goal
Describe the two important Islamic philosophers of the Middle Ages
Avicenna (930-1037) From Northern Iran
-Neoplatonist who focused and wrote primarily on medicine.
-Followed Plato's teachings the most.
-changed the Latin philosophy world
-he did this by upholding Aristotle's teachings ( why he was right)
-he pushed away from the ideal world and towards science
William of Champaeux and his take on Form
He discusses the idea on Forms(Plato) and out does Plato.
-Came before Averroes
-Forms are stuff we sense and existed apart from the physical objects and minds
-Forms do not need to have physical counterparts(any idea you think about is real, not in existence but real)
-Out does Plato on the 2nd part
-Persuaded Latin world Aristotle is on to something
-We can have a general notion of whiteness w/o giving it a separate existence
- Color doesn't exist outside our minds
-Therefore, out general notions are derived from an inspection of physical objects and do not precede the inspection (general notion comes after your experience)
-Roscellinus found timely support from Averroes
COMBINES ARISTOTLE AND PLATO
Aquinas on forms
-Redefines Form: that which subsists, to have something real but dependent on something, in and only in the matter.
-The universe consists of matter and forms, The Creator unites matter with fixed forms
-Matter with qualities from the forms= physical objects
-Substantial form and accidental qualities
-The soul cannot "survive" the death of a body, unless it is provided with another
Substantial or accidental qualities
that which makes the object what it is (ex: a bottle- primary quality)
other qualities an object possesses (ex: a plastic bottle)
Aquinas on the soul after life
The soul cannot "survive" the death of a body, unless it is provided with another
Rationalists claims about knowledge
-All worth-while knowledge is contained by our reason
-the min is made with ready made faculties
-If a philsopher is good enough, he can deduce truths about the universe by proper thinking(a priori knowledge)
Rationalists claims about necessity and contingency (primarily from Leibniz)
Necessary facts are facts which we know in such way that the certainty of our knowledge is not increased by repetition.
-All facts are necessary
situation in which one event happens only after another event has already occured; one event is contingent on the other's occurence
the principle virtue of which we believe that no fact can be real or existing and no statement true unless
it has a sufficient reason why it should be as it is
-deduced this principle from the existence of God
-everything that existed was a center of spiritual experience and activity which he called a monad
-Every monad was a thought in the mind of God
-God regards all aspects of the universe in all possible manners
-The universe is not created by God’s choice, but by God’s nature.
- God’s nature doesn’t allow him to do what’s not necessary.
-Since God's thinking must be the best that is possible, it follows that everything in the world must be necessary as is.
1. John Locke (1632-1704) ENGLAND
2. George Berkeley (1685-1753)-Bishop/Teacher IRELAND
3. David Hume (1711-1776) SCOTTISH
Continental Rationalists (approximate dates)
1. Rene Descartes (1596-1650) FRANCE
2. George Leibnitz (1646-1716) GERMANY
3. Spinoza (1632-1677) ITALY
-THIS IS GOD
-So if I have an idea of perfection, God must exist
-Every contingent fact must have a cause
-Everything that exists must have an ultimate cause which completely explains and accounts for the thing, but is itself uncaused
-Kant's own belief in God arose from a consideration of the facts of human personality and the nature of moral experience
God is omnipotent and benevolent.
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