sees religion as entiwined with other spheres of social + cultural life
studies all societies not just western or literate ones
develops an analytic language across specific contexts
seeks to interpret facts in terms of contexts that produce them
religion has two poles which are?
mystical and ideological
mystical pole is...
religion points inward to experience, deep emotion, transformed consciousness: but the particulars of these experiences are always culturally shaped
? religion points outward to social roles, hierarchies, power, divisions and distinctions
dif than personal stories. -collectively made (tales, legends, myths) -symbols which may be multivocal -have recurring themes, ej food,
narratives about deities and gurus
swamiji- people choose the form their faith resonates best with ej mother goddesses as fiercely protective,
how do people sustain themselves in dif enviros, why do they choose to do it that way? what do dif subsistence strategies have to do with the forms culture takes/how it changes?
environmental determinism, possibilism, cultural ecology, ecological functionalism
environment determines human behavior and society. really ethnocentric, tropical people lazy... ignores historical evidence...nor explains cultural diversity
environments do not determine society, but set the limits of possibility (but just cause its possible, doesnt mean people do it)
cultures interact with the environment through a process of adaptation related to changing technology and arrangements of production... but Julian Steward never considered negative cultural traits
culture is a set of feedback systems keeping everything ? like population and resources ? in homeostasis (pigs for the ancestors)
all the environment theories either 1 didnt account for externam forces, cultural variation, or they were ethnocentric. so how do we study it?
combination of approaches, people recognize that its a holistic thing, moving back and forth between idiographic and nomothetic approaches
subsistence strategy- foraging
gathering wild foods and hunting game (example: Ju/hoansi people of Namibia), no farming
subsistence strategy- horticulture
farming domesticated plants with simple technology; includes swidden (?slash and burn?) gardening (extended example from Kent?s fieldwork among the Caboclo [mixed-heritage peasant] people who live along the Rio Negro in the Brazilian Amazon basin)
subsistence strategy- pastoralism
primary subsistence relies on one or more domesticated animals (example: Chukchi reindeer herders, Siberia)
subsistence strategy- intensive agriculture
farming using various complex technologies like plows and irrigation; surplus allows other non-subsistence jobs (example: rice farming in Bali) 10,000 yrs old
subsistence strategy- industrialized food production
mechanized agriculture relying on machine and chemical inputs; minority of population engaged in subsistence (example: US)
examples of why studying religion is hard
durkheim's distinction between "sacred" and "profane" doesnt work in most societies. separating religion from other parts of culture is impos.
people dont use all the resouces that are available to them. every economy involves prodction and consumption of goods that are necessary or desirable.
three factors of production in capitalist economies
labor, land, capital
any work that is paid for. maintenance can have implications for status of men vs women
a site for living and working, a source of resources
the money or property used to carry on a business- typically refers to general purpose money
3 good things with money
-allows evaluation of many dif kinds of goods and services on a common scale -serves as a means of exchange, sell what you have buy what you want, not just bartering -functions as a means of repayment, no matter how debt is obtained
modes of allocation- householding
when members of a household produce their own subsistence, with minimal dependence on trade for food or other necessities ej- agricultural pioneers in wisconsin produced their own shelter food and fuel. used more here when market seems less reliable.
modes of allocation- reciprocity
exchange of goods among people already associated with one another (usually by kinship or place of residence). gift giving also for example cements family ties.
modes of allocation-resistribution
systematic movement of goods or wealth toward an administrative center and its reallocation by authorities. communists. modern tax institutions.
modes of allocation-market
exchange of goods at prices (in money or in other goods) determined by laws of supply and demand. exchange not restricted by family ties. good example is of nonmarket economies is kula from trobriaand islands yams and fish
In human societies discussed in this class, prestige can be earned by a. accumulating desirable objects b. giving away desirable objects c. destroying desirable objects d. all of the above
faulty assumptions (old) on gender
world of women is familiar and domestic, world of men is public and political. contrary ej is thai women.
allows women to mobilize along kinship lines, puts men under pressure,
typical features of a society
group united by principles, recognizes self as group, territorially localized, bonded by common linguistic/symbolic representations, most interactions are in the group, primary recruitment is by procreation
every group claims superiority over others... why does rank matter..
unequal distribution of the four "P"s, power prestige, property, pleasure,
major kinds of ranking systems can include...
gender, caste, race, class, ethnicity
key features of caste ideal
ideal, fixed social order. combines endogamy, occupational specialization, ritual purity, reinforced by rules of daily living determined by lineage, allows little social mobility
key features of social class ideal
capitalists controlled means of production, labored wage, material possessions, income, education, high social mobility same opps for everyone
two largest forms of marginalization
multifaceted symbolic webs which we decide to control us, we are slaves to culture, make our webs but are constrained by them
problems with medical categories... two good ways possibly to do categories?
overlap between traditional vs biomedical. its ethnocentric. biomedical is empirical, some standard contron NOT!, "traditional" is way too big, no philosophical coherence. other good categories would be mystical rational causation natural, internal external
ancestry, holiness, military sucess, demonstrated moral worth. Mendela!
getting other people to do what you want. Ugabe!
publicly recognized social positions, ej mother king nephew middle class. obvi individuals occupy many statuses at once. can be ascribed or achieved. role is customary for occupants of the status. castes and social classes are statuses, so is race.
folk taxonomy, not a biologically meaningful categorization. how do we know? genetically more variation within groups than between them. phenotypic variations that we consider important do not vary together. racial categories have changed faster than biology has.
factors that constrain deviance in society
guilt, shame, avoidance, supernatural sanction
internalized version of society's external rules
fear of disapproval, gossip and ridicule.
deviant person loses social and economic ties
ej witchcraft beliefs, santa claus, wrath of god.
arbitration and remediation
ej inuit song contest
codified rules of behavior, enforced by duly constituted authority
government, what is it what does it do
?institutionalized power / authority ?key functions conflict management, inter-group relations (diplomacy / warfare) may take many forms from the simple (headman) to the complex (state bureaucracy)
ability to influence based on personal status or status of office
ability to influence based on threat of force or sanction
role: structure bueracracy with monopoly on legitimate use of violence. geographic territory. cultural invention.
either civic or ethnic, group with sense of shared culture, history and destiny.
civic (ej US) or ethnic nation with its own state leadership... national sovereignty.
ethnic groups / ethnic nation
claim common biological descent and/or shared historical experience, perceive selves as different than other groups, ej navajo nation 1/4 your heritage
Antonio Gramsci's three means of maintaining rule
domination, ideology, hegemony
rule by coercive power (example: Robert Mugabe), rulers are vulnerable unless convince. they use schools and gifts..
openly perpetuated beliefs justifying political arrangements (example: the Pledge of Allegiance) openly advocating itself
perpetuation of the world view of the dominant as ?common-sense? modes of speech or behavior or values or ideas, accepted by rulers and ruled (example: the American dream)
name one (of three) defining characteristic of general purpose money
1 means/system of exchange 2 system of repayment 3 system of evaluation
ethnography says in a village they are clan exogamous and tribe endogamous. what does this mean?
outside clan, inside tribe
compare caste in india and social class in america 2 differences 2 similarities
both systems of rank, born into both, caste totally dependent on lineage, class has to do with stuff and material goods wealth... both may have some cultural performance relations...
why does culture change
-because it is a product of human creativity. also, ? our culture is not genetically determined, we use both tools and meanings to construct culture ? not only do we apply them both to our environments, we may reshape the tools and meanings themselves
how does culture change usually begin?
often starts with someone questioning the standard blueprint (example: changing social role performance) OR re-contexting: moving an idea or practice from one context to another where it is completely new
the fallacy of cultural determinism
? cultures are neatly bounded ? cultures are monolithic humans are passively molded by culture
culture change is really rapid in response to... plus examples!
? changing technologies (example: flutes and boomboxes among the Wai Wai; cell phones in the Third World) ? changing ecological circumstances (example: sex 1950s-2000s in America) ? changing political and economic circumstances (example: Spanish colonialism and the Yaqui people of what is now Mexico) ? colonialism, development and globalization
when imposed change is unwelcome or catastrophic (2)
1 cultural dissonance is common (the culture in people?s heads does not match the world outside them and so behavior does not produce desired ends)
2millenarian cults are likely ? typically promise utopia on earth often after dramatic purge of existing social order (example: Melanesian cargo cults)
what is prestige
accumulating, giving away, destroying
what did bourgois hate about culture of poverty cycle?
doesnt take into account external forces, can be a "blame the victim" approach
is significantly constrained and altered by structural problems!!
inequality related to institutinos, laws, customs, relations between governments and other social structures
effects of cash taxation
increase famine, increase STDs, transition to cash economy, women economically marginalized
neoliberal economic policies
caused user fees for health and education, currency devaluation, elimination/weakening of minimum wages, price controls, labor protections
primary purpose of anthropology can be seen as developing a ?binocular vision"
? see a culture from the perspective of those who are in it ? and simultaneously from an outside view ? look at the historical, political, economic, and social environment ? compare with other cultures =if we can learn to achieve this binocular vision, we can apply it to our own culture too
why we encounter the other
? as a way to glorify ourselves ? as a way to criticize ourselves (example: Sweet 16 Birthday Party: Exiled!) by accident
ways to consider human diversity
? as something to be feared ? as something to be controlled by bureaucratic approaches to ?tolerance? ? as aesthetic pleasure ? as evolutionary resource ? as a way to ?increase the number of stories in the world? (attributed to Geertz)
purpose of stories / narratives
? make sense of past and explain how we got to present ? project us into the future ? give us opportunity to understand our choices as leading to different possible outcomes ? what does it mean to hold something (like the American Dream) as a story instead of as a belief? ? what does it mean to move beyond the stories told us by advertisers?
Want to see the other 83 Flashcards in exam 2?JOIN TODAY FOR FREE!