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In a study by Lassiter and his colleagues (2007), they found that when judges and police officers viewed tapes of interrogations, they were likely to find the confession of a suspect more voluntary when the interrogation camera
only showed the suspect
Based on information from the authors of your text, who would be more likely to express a feeling of shame publicly?
Tran, a man from a collectivist culture
Researchers briefly anesthetized chimpanzees and painted an odorless red dye on their heads. When they awoke and looked in the mirror, the chimps immediately reached to touch their brows and ears where the dye was. These findings suggest that chimps
possess a self-concept much like a human's
All of the following are nonverbal behaviors except
c.tone of voice.
If all humans have access to the same cognitive tools, what is the role of culture?
It determines which tools you use most
Hedden and his colleagues (2008) examined the brain activity of East Asians and European Americans while they underwent an fMRI. They found that Americans had more brain activity when they were told to pay attention to the box around the line than when they paid attention to the line. Why was there greater brain activity in this condition?
Participants’ brains had to work harder to perceive objects in a way that was not their typical way
We make self-serving attributions for all of the following reasons except that we
are concerned with obtaining accurate feedback about ourselves to use in making future decisions.
The authors of your text present a study by Masuda and his colleagues (2008) that examined cultural differences in social perception. They compared how participants perceived a central character when the surrounding characters in a picture either matched or mismatched the central character's facial expression. Which group of participants spent more time looking at people in the periphery?
people from an Eastern culture
Emre has a baby face. Noam just met him. What is Noam likely to think about Emre?
"He's a very warm and naïve person."
In general, when people first encounter a novel situation, they tend to
size up the situation quickly and effortlessly, but with frequent and extensive errors that are corrected only with experience.
Complete the analogy about culture differences: Western culture: ________:: ________: social group.
individualist; Eastern culture
Fidan wrecked his dad's car. When his dad got home from work, Fidan met him at the door with a cold beer and his favorite magazine. The smell from his dad's favorite meal was wafting through the house, and his dad's favorite CD was playing. Fidan is trying to use ________ to get his father to think of him as a good, responsible son before he tells him about the car.
Ed and Violet just saw their professor slip and fall. Ed thinks, "What a klutz!", but Violet thinks, "I bet there was water on the floor and she slipped on it." In this case, Ed made an ________ attribution and Violet made an ________ attribution.
? Self-handicapping helps individuals make ________ attributions for their performance.
You really want your date to like you and agree to go out again. At the end of the night, it is best to ask him/her for
If you were to design a program using rewards to increase motivation, what type of rewards would it be the best to use, according to the authors of your text?
Tim has asked Robin to marry him. Robin isn't sure whether she loves him enough or whether she loves him in the right way. She talks with her sister about all the reasons why it would be wise to marry Tim, and all the reasons why it wouldn't be such a great idea. According to Wilson's theory of reasons-generated attitude change, Robin might regret it were she to base her decision on the reasons she mentioned. Why is that?
Reasons Robin generates during the conversation won't predict her long-term attitudes and feelings very well.
Eva runs an unscrupulous organization that attempts to scam money from people while posing as a charity. Based on the research by Shariff and Norenzayan (2007), the best strategy for doing this involves
mentioning fairness several times in the brochures
Why is belief in a just world a self-serving belief? We can
convince ourselves that we are safe from misfortunes
? Consider the results from a study by Miyamoto and colleagues in which participants viewed either photos of U.S. city scenes or Japanese city scenes, then were asked to detect differences between two similar pictures. Based on their findings, if an American was touring in Tokyo, Japan, which of the following aspects of a picture would she be most likely to pick up on?
Why is it that people do not necessarily make attributions as Kelley's covariation model predicts?
People do not always have the relevant information they need
Nora has been blind since birth, and has never seen a smile, frown, or furrowed brow. At age three, how capable would she be of expressing emotions using the facial expressions of sighted people?
She would be able to express all six basic emotions just as well as sighted people
Charles is motivated to see himself accurately. What kind of social comparison is he most likely to make?
He will compare himself to people with a similar background to his own.
According to the authors of your text, what is the primary reason that people often rely on a variety of mental shortcuts? We're
confronted with an overwhelming amount of social information
In a study by Lassiter and his colleagues (2007), they found that when judges and police officers viewed tapes of interrogations, they were more likely to find the confession of a suspect voluntary when the camera focused only on the suspect. Why?
The perceptual salience of the suspect triggered the fundamental attribution error.
Which of the following facial expressions does not belong?
Christopher is considering breaking up with his high-school sweetheart. He spends many hours weighing the benefits and drawbacks, he asks his friends for advice, and he thinks about it further before coming to his decision. In this case, Christopher is using
According to the textbook, research on the development of the self-concept using the "red dye" test (placing a red dot on the forehead of the child and then showing the child his or her reflection in the mirror and seeing whether the child touches the red dot on the "baby in the mirror" or his or her own head) indicates that the self-concept in human infants develops at, on average, age
William is constantly searching for employment, but has yet to be hired. While William is outside in the unemployment line, a woman yells at him as she drives by, "Get a job, you lazy bum!" Her assumption about William is an example of the
fundamental attribution error.
When people make attributions, research has suggested that they rely less on consensus information than the covariation model suggests, and rely more heavily on
consistency and distinctiveness
The fundamental attribution error occurs more often in ________ cultures.
"You reap what you sow," goes the old adage. This saying is most compatible with the social-psychological concept of
belief in a just world.
Complete the analogy: analytic thinking style: ___________ :: holistic thinking style: _____________.
United States; Korea
Several studies conducted by Nisbett and his colleagues suggest that people who grow up in East Asian cultures think more ___________ than people who grew up in Western cultures.
Suppose a certain student, Nathan, falls asleep during every chemistry class. Suppose further that Nathan is the only one who falls asleep in this class, and that he falls asleep in all of his other classes. According to Kelley's covariation model of attribution, how will people explain Nathan's behavior (falling asleep)?
It is due to something unusual about Nathan, because his behavior is low in consensus, high in distinctiveness, and high in consistency
People engage in self-handicapping strategies in order to avoid
an internal attribution for failure.
Warren believes that Tom is an outgoing, gregarious person. "Whom did you hang out with this weekend?" Warren asks Tom. "Tell me about all of the fun things that you have planned for the summer," Warren continues. Although Tom is usually rather quiet and reserved, he responds to Warren in an outgoing, friendly manner. This is an example of
a self-fulfilling prophecy.
Nisbett (2003) suggested that the difference in ways of thinking came from differences in East and West philosophical traditions. With that in mind, how would you expect your new roommate, who is from Korea, to think?
Lisa is most likely to conclude that she likes classical music when
she has preset her car radio to a classical music station
"Computer nerds" are widely held to be socially awkward, introverted, unpopular, and obsessed with anything related to technology. This description represents a(n)
implicit personality theory
Anna usually doesn't like movies with violent scenes. Still, she saw Sin City—a violent movie—five times, and loved it. Everyone else—including critics—really liked Sin City, too. In this example, distinctiveness is ________ and consensus is ________.
? If you grew up in a household with a brother who was morbidly shy, you might have a different belief about a man you meet who avoids dating women than a person who grew up in a household with a brother who was gay. This difference in interpretation is due to differences in your and the other person's
Which of the following does not belong?
c.relations between objects
The main idea of the role of perceptual salience in attributions is
what we notice is presumed to be the cause of behavior
Ethan and Heather see a man stumbling around as he walks down the street. Ethan, who belongs to Alcoholics Anonymous, thinks the man is drunk, but Heather, who just watched a TV special on Michael J. Fox, thinks the man has Parkinson's disease. These differing interpretations of the same behavior seem to be caused by Ethan and Heather's differences in
On a visit to Australia, then-president George H.W. Bush offended the Australians when he flashed the two-fingered "peace sign" to a crowd. This is an example of how the use of ________, which vary from culture to culture, may lead to confusion or conflict if used outside of the user's culture.
Based on the meta-analysis by Mezulis, which of the following is true?
a.The self-serving bias is stronger in the Pacific Islands than the United States.
b.The self-serving bias is stronger in India than Australia.
c.The self-serving bias is stronger in Japan than Russia.
d.The self-serving bias is stronger in Canada than India.
The self-serving bias is stronger in Canada than India
Recall that Hoffman, Lau, and Johnson (1986) provided native English speakers and Chinese-English bilinguals with descriptions of people who fit either an "artistic" type or a "shi gú" type. Their findings revealed that
bilingual speakers' impressions were determined by the language in which they read the story.
In a study by Hedden and his colleagues (2008) examining brain activity, East Asians and European Americans underwent an fMRI while focusing on either a target or the context of a picture. In which circumstance did European Americans exert more attention?
when asked to attend to the context
Researchers have found that couples who are happy in their marriages make very different attributions for their partners' behaviors than couples who are unhappy. Specifically, couples in happy marriages make ________, while couples in unhappy marriages make ________.
external attributions for negative behavior and internal attributions for positive behavior; internal attributions for negative behavior and external for positive
Based on research on attributions within married couples presented in your text, consider the following couple: Dean claims that every time Erica does something kind it is just because she wants to impress his mother, and every time she does something rude he says it is because she is a mean person. What kind of relationship are they most likely to have?
very dissatisfied: a troubled couple
? According to recent research, why does culture influence our tendency to make internal versus external attributions?
Which person would have the most difficulty exerting self-control?
a.Leah, who just arrived at her first class of the day
b.Cassie, who is watching her diet
c.Tony, who just drank a milkshake
d.Luke, who is exercising
Cassie, who is watching her diet
Alice goes to see a rerun of Jaws (a movie about a vicious shark) a few days before she takes off to Florida on spring break. On break, she finds that she is now too nervous to spend much time actually in the water, since she is convinced that anything she sees in the water is a shark. Her heightened sensitivity is due to
Recall Schachter and Singer's study in which participants were given an injection, then exposed to either a very happy or very angry confederate, then asked about their mood. Which of the following is an independent variable in this study?
receiving the injection of epinephrine or a natural compound
Nutz and Boltz, Inc. employs 100 people; 80 are lawyers and 20 are engineers. Albert, a lawyer at the company, is quiet, likes puzzles, and carries a calculator. Most people, when asked whether Albert is a lawyer or an engineer, will guess that he is an engineer. These people are using ________ to make this faulty guess. A correct guess would have been made if they had used ________.
the representativeness heuristic; base rate information
Parents seldom spend a lot of time explaining to their children how to ride a bicycle. Instead, they often get a bike with training wheels and let the children learn for themselves how to ride a bike. This is because our understanding about how to ride a bicycle is based on
automatic thinking which is difficult to describe to someone else.
According to research conducted by Susskind and his colleagues (2008) presented by the authors of your text, when people make the facial expression of disgust, it involves
decreasing input from the senses
Recall that even when participants in an experiment conducted by Jones and Harris (1967) were told that people were assigned to write an essay sympathetic to Cuban dictator Fidel Castro, they still were willing to assume that the essay reflected the writer's true "pro-Castro" attitudes. These findings illustrate
the fundamental attribution error
The two major ways that a person may self-handicap are ________ and ________.
What is the relationship between nonverbal behavior, implicit personality theory, and attribution theory?
Decoding nonverbal behaviors and using implicit theories rely on schemas, while attributions rely on heuristics.
In order to preserve intrinsic motivation and be effective, which is the best strategy for a parent to use when praising a child? Praise the child's
increase in competence through hard work
Tina is very happy in her marriage. She is going to make ________ attributions about the positive behaviors of her spouse.
Which of the following is not an example of automatic thinking?
a.having a sense of whether an object is near or far from us
b.conducting a search on the Internet
c.forming a first impression of someone within seconds of meeting him or her
d.driving down the highway while also carrying on a conversation
conducting a search on the Internet
Rewards are not as likely to undermine intrinsic motivation when
rewards are not given to everyone
Results from cross-cultural studies of impression formation indicate that
the language we use influences the implicit personality theories we use and thus the impressions we form.
Because Eastern cultures tend to value ________, there is more effort devoted to ________.
interdependence; avoiding public embarrassment
Based on the study by Shariff and Norenzayan (2007) presented in your text, if you pass by several churches, then a block or so later a homeless person asks you for change, how are you likely to behave?
You would be more likely to give the person money.
Agustin knows you're taking a psychology class and wants to know what he can do to be more disciplined in a few weeks when midterm exams come around. What advice do you have, based on the information in this chapter?
Exert self-control in some area now to practice for the future.
Recall that Taylor and Fiske (1975) conducted a clever experiment in which a group of participants observed a scripted conversation between two male confederates. Some could see both of the men; others could see the face of only one or the other man. When asked questions about the two confederates (e.g., who had taken the lead in the conversation), participants who had a clear view of both men thought they were equally influential, whereas those who faced one or the other thought that the man whose face they saw was more influential. These results demonstrated that
the salience of perceptual stimuli can explain how the fundamental attribution error occurs.
Simone runs simply because it gives her pleasure to exercise outside and to leave her daily worries behind as she works up a sweat. In this instance, Simone is ________ to run.
Recently, a state department of education decided to lower the grade needed to pass the writing portion of a standardized test. Assuming that Rosenthal and Jacobson's research remains true in today's classrooms, what is most likely to happen to students' writing ability as a result?
Their writing will get worse because they are not being held to a higher standard.
Implicit personality theories are strongly influenced by and tied to
"Ellen is always crabby and tense, and that's why she's acting so impatient today," Grace remarked. Grace has just used a(n) ________ attribution to explain the cause of Ellen's impatience.
In a 1932 study, a Bantu herdsman readily recalled the details of a cattle transaction, but the Scotsman had to look up his written record of the event. According to your text, what can best explain this difference in memory ability?
Bantu culture emphasizes cattle herding so strongly that herdsmen have well-developed schemas
According to information presented in the textbook, researchers found that in order to feel more optimistic about their own futures, cancer patients engage in
downward social comparison
Recall that Robert Rosenthal and Lenore Jacobson (1968) informed grade-school teachers that some of their students (called "bloomers") would show great academic improvement in the upcoming year. Also recall that students labeled "bloomers" actually showed greater increases on IQ tests compared to students who were not labeled "bloomers." These differences occurred because teachers
challenged "bloomers" more and gave them more and better feedback
Who is most likely to have a self-fulfilling prophecy occur?
Luca, the target, who is motivated to be perceived accurately
The text discusses three reasons why schemas can become accessible. Which of the following is not one of these reasons?
base rate information about a person
A mother who has tragically lost a daughter in a car accident spends her days rehearsing "if onlys." "If only I had made her stay home that night"; "If only she had taken Route 78 instead of Route 22"; "If only I had offered to chauffeur her instead of letting her drive herself." The mother is engaging in the process known as
"If it walks like a duck, and quacks like a duck, it must be a duck," the adage goes. This expression best captures the essence of the
Recall that even when participants in an experiment conducted by Jones and Harris (1967) were told that people were assigned to write an essay sympathetic to Cuban dictator Fidel Castro, they still were willing to assume that the essay reflected the writer's true "pro-Castro" attitudes. In this experiment, how could people have avoided the fundamental attribution error? They could have assumed
nothing, and rated the essay writer's attitude in the midpoint of the pro- and anti-Castro scale
Simon laughed long and hard when he saw his mother slip and fall. Neither his sister nor his father laughed when they saw her fall. Simon has seen both his mother and other people fall before, but didn't laugh then. According to Kelley's covariation model, observers privy to this information are likely to assume that
there must have been something peculiar about this particular incident that made Simon laugh
When Robin meets her friend's new roommate, she sees that she has easels and paints strewn about, and has decorated her side of the room with lots of hand-made ceramic pots and paintings. At first, Robin is most likely
to use her "artistic" person schema and assume that her friend's roommate is free-thinking and creative.
________ thinking is nonconscious, effortless, and unintentional, whereas ________ thinking is conscious, effortful, and intentional.
Based on research by Becker and his colleagues (2007) about decoding emotions presented by the authors of your text, which person's expression would be the easiest to decode?
Amanda's expression of happiness
Which of the following is one way to overcome social cognitive mistakes, as described by your textbook?
a.Rely solely on automatic processes and hope for the best.
b.Consider the possibility that we could be wrong.
c.Take advanced college courses in physics.
d.Rely solely on controlled processes and hope for the best.
take advanced college courses in physics
Ava is at a party, deep in conversation with her friends. Suddenly, she hears her name mentioned in another conversation and her attention turns to monitor that conversation. Clearly, Ava had been unconsciously monitoring the other conversations. Such experiences demonstrate the
cocktail party effect
The authors of your text present a study by Masuda and his colleagues (2008) that examined cultural differences in social perception. They compared how participants perceived a central character when the surrounding characters in a picture either matched or mismatched the central character's facial expression. What concept were they examining in this study?
Differences in culture lead to differences in accuracy of facial expression interpretation
In Korea and Egypt, men can be seen holding hands and walking closely with other men. This behavior indicates that the men are
According to the text, the existence of Japanese benriya or "convenience agencies," which rent guests for weddings, funerals, and lectures, suggests that the
desire to manage public impressions is as strong in Japan as it is in the U.S.
According to research conducted by Susskind and his colleagues (2008) presented by the authors of your text, the expression of fear involves facial movements which
increase sensory input
The authors of your text present a study by Masuda and his colleagues (2008) that examined cultural differences in social perception. They compared how participants perceived a central character when the surrounding characters in a picture either matched or mismatched the central character's facial expression. What implications does this study have for the idea of analytic and holistic thinking styles?
It implies that holistic thinking leads people to more carefully consider social context
Seeing pictures of physically attractive celebrities and models, many people in the U.S. assume that these people are also intelligent, kind, or wealthy. Such assumptions illustrate the implicit personality theory held widely as a culture that
what is beautiful is good
In a study presented in the textbook, participants were greeted by either a likable or an unlikable experimenter, who either wore a blank shirt or an anti-racism shirt. Then participants completed a measure of automatic prejudice. Results from this study suggest that when people make an acquaintance that they like, they
adopt the other person's attitude
Based on the idea of overjustification, if you have a group of children who already enjoy reading which of the following would be most likely to decrease their intrinsic motivation?
rewarding them for each book they read
? Leonie really likes Giorgi and would like for him to like her. Based on the research presented in this chapter, where should she suggest they go for a date?
Kevin just got a low grade on his term paper. If Kevin has a ________ mindset, he would be most likely to give up and reduce his efforts in the class, feeling as though he is just "a bad writer."
Which of the following people is engaging in upward social comparison?
a.Chet, who checks his stopwatch and vows to run faster next time
b.Toni, who reads William Faulkner to assess her own writing skills
c.Jermaine, who checks the distribution of scores on his final examination
d.Daniel, who feels better when he realizes that rich people pay a lot more in taxes than he does
Toni, who reads William Faulkner to assess her own writing skills
? After losing a Little League softball game between the Rockets and the Tigers, what is the coach of the losing Rockets likely to say?
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