The research purpose should identify the study variable(s) and what other key aspect of the study?
In the literature report of a study on quality of life, the researcher describes two previous investigations suggesting that spirituality is related to quality of life. This information suggests that the current study is significant because it:
build on previous research
The statement, “This study explores the experience of caregiving by adult daughters of parents with Alzheimer’s disease,” is an example of which of the following components of a research study?
aim or objective
What type of hypothesis is the following? “Low-fat diet is related to lower total cholesterol and higher HDL (high-density lipoprotein).”
Complex, directional, associative
Read the following statement and answer the question: “Structured preoperative support is more effective in reducing surgical patients’ perception of pain and request for analgesics than structured postoperative support.” What type of variable is “Perception of pain”?
Read the following statement and answer the question: “Structured preoperative support is more effective in reducing surgical patients’ perception of pain and request for analgesics than structured postoperative support.” This statement represents what type of hypothesis?
complex, directional, research
The statement below is an example of which of the following? “In this study, pain is reflected as a score between 0 and 10 on the postoperative pain rating scale.”
Which of the following statements describing the research purpose is true?
“The reader can determine the research purpose in most titles of research articles.”
What is true about funding priorities in nursing research?
Most major nursing organizations develop research priorities for research. It is wise to go to the web site of an agency to view these priorities before asking for research dollars.
What question helps determine the significance of a research study?
“Does this study build on previous work in the area?”
What would be the strongest evidence in support of a researcher’s qualifications for conducting a study? The researcher has
Published five precious studies on the same topic
In which situation would the research and the null hypothesis be the same?
Researcher predicts that there will be no difference among the groups.
What statement is true regarding objectives in qualitative studies?
The variables and concepts in qualitative studies are usually more complex, so the objective statement is broader in focus.
Which of the following would be an appropriate research question for a qualitative study?
How do parents decide when to take their child to a physician?
A researcher uses the following hypothesis in a study: excessive listening to alternative music will lead to increased depression in young teenagers. Which of the following descriptors can be applied to this hypothesis?
A researcher uses the following hypothesis in a study: “Excessive listening to alternative music will lead to increased depression in young teenagers.” Which of the following dependent variables would need to be defined operationally in the research study?
A researcher uses the following hypothesis in a study: “Excessive listening to alternative music will lead to increased depression in young teenagers.” Which kind of variable is “listening”?
A researcher uses the following hypothesis in a study: “Excessive listening to alternative music will lead to increased depression in young teenagers.” Which of the following statements is an acceptable operational definition of “excessive listening”? Excessive listening is defined as:
the number of hours a subject spends listening to alternative music.
Demographic variables are often used to indicate which of the following?
Which of the following is an acceptable operational definition according to the requirements of how to operationalize a variable? Depression will be operationalized as:
the subjects score on the State-Trait Anxiety scale
Which of the following is a correct statement regarding operational and conceptual definitions in qualitative studies?
The conceptual and operational definitions should be consistent in a qualitative study.
What is a difference between correlational and quasi-experimental research?
The researcher wants to predict what will happen in quasi-experimental research.
A researcher wants to investigate the possibility that diabetic patients who are allowed to cook their own meals will adhere to dietary restrictions better than patients who do not. What is the dependent variable?
adherence to dietary restrictions
In which section of the research report might the problem statement be located?
One significant criterion to use when critiquing a literature review is to:
make note of the sources of the articles cited.
Which of the following sources would be most useful for a researcher conducting a literature review?
Research reports found in a refereed professional journal
In using available electronic sources, a researcher:
is able to access sources that were not readily available in the past.
In searching the literature to find sources to build the foundation for a study, which of the following are usually not included in quantitative studies?
Which of the following would not be empirical research?
Editorial in a prestigious research journal
Which of the following statements is true regarding the purpose of a literature review in a quantitative study?
Different sections of the research report in a quantitative study make use of literature for support of what is being presented.
In historical research, how does the literature review fit into the study?
The researcher uses the literature review to select and define the research topic.
In conducting a thorough critique of a literature review in a published study, which of the following are expected of the critique writer?
The reviewer must examine the quality and content of the sources presented.
The literature review section of a research report includes a summary of which of the following?
A written plan for a computerized search may prove helpful. Which of the following is not typically included in a search plan?
databases that include lay literature
In conducting an electronic search, which of the following bits of information typically is not found in search fields?
How can a nurse who practices in the clinical area find out what the best practices are for that specialty?
read published meta-analyses
A study framework reflects the:
researchers "theory" or idea about the study
Which relationship diagram below best represents the following hypothesis? “Conventional gauze dressings cause fewer skin changes in wound sites than do hydrocolloid or hydroactive dressings.”
Type of dressing ® skin changes
Which of the following responses best describes the relational statement that is diagrammed below? Pain perception ¬ (+) ® anxiety
Pain perception and anxiety are positively related to one another.
Which of the following provides a partial map for the indicated relationship drawn from this research title? “Effects of attendance and effort on cognitive and physical functioning among older adults in a long-term exercise program”
Effort ® physical functioning
Schematic models or maps represent reality with a minimum use of:
Which of the following is an example of a theory from a physiological background that is used by nurses as a framework for nursing studies?
gate control theory of pain
Which of the following statements is true regarding the connection of theory to qualitative research? Qualitative research:
can guide or be derived from theory.
Which of the following questions should a reviewer ask when critiquing a study’s framework?
how are the concepts defined?
A researcher theorizes that walking three times per week will minimize the likelihood of premature labor in at-risk pregnant women. The researcher initiates a research program to test this theory. This research study is attempting to validate what aspect of theory?
Strategies for controlling outcomes
Which of the following techniques can a reviewer use for assistance when critiquing a published study in the area of theory and research frameworks?
Creating a conceptual map of the concepts as described in the study.
Which of the following is true about theoretical frameworks used in research? Theories:
are constructed by people and are tentative in nature.
“Abstract” is defined in research as:
not well defined and general
The framework and conceptual map for a study:
often must be inferred by the reader from the text of the report.
Conceptual definitions are important to include in a research report because conceptual definitions:
may differ in their meaning of terms depending on the study framework.
In the research report, what can the reader expect in a theoretical statement? A theoretical statement:
would only be discussed in the framework section; may be implied.
A research design is best described as a:
blueprint for conducting the study.
A threat to internal validity of a study using a two-group pretest-posttest design is that:
the pretest may sensitize subjects so they change their behavior or responses on the posttest.
At the beginning and end of a 10-week exercise program the subjects have their lung vital capacity measured by the researchers. The readings are plotted on a graph and then the results are recorded. Which of the following can pose a threat to the internal validity in this study?
Internal validity would be of most concern in which of the following study designs?
Which will help avoid the external validity of a study?
representativeness of the sample
The one-group pretest-posttest design is an example of what type of design?
The diagram below represents what type of design? O T O
The “T” placed in the research design model below indicates: O T O O O
Which of the following must be present in experimental research?
Random assignment of subjects to groups
RNs in a HTN clinic found that many patients do not comply with their treatment regimen. They designed an intervention based on Bandura’s social cognitive theory and wanted to study the effect of this intervention in a convenience sample. Which of the following designs would be best suited?
Which of the following is a true statement regarding nursing research?
Nurses have successfully used a variety of designs in research studies because there are many types of questions to be answered.
When critiquing a descriptive study, which of the following is important to find in the study report?
A discussion of the variables of interest and how they were defined
When a researcher defines the variables in a study both conceptually and operationally, selects instruments with good validity, and attempts to make the data collection procedures the same for all subjects, what is the goal?
protect against bias
In a critique of a case study design, one would need to pay particular attention to which of the following?
what the goal of the study was
A possible reason that nurses have not been involved in conducting clinical trials until recently is that:
funding in the amount needed had not been available.
A problem for nurses conducting quasi-experimental or experimental research is that many times a patient cannot ethically be left without a treatment. What is the best solution for this problem?
Ensure all patients receive the standard of care.
What is the biggest problem in the documented lack of replication studies in nursing research?
A knowledge base is not developing.
Most phenomena in nursing would be considered:
Probability in research is associated with which kind of causality?
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