One of the most abundant elements in the earth's atmosphere and biosphere, essential to the structure of an amino acid.
Member of a plant family capable of fixing nitrogen from the air and thus not dependent on soil fertility to produce a high protein seed.
To remove nitrogen from the atmosphere and render it into a chemical form usable by plants.
Animal that subsists on foods of plant origin.
Basic unit from which protein is made, consisting of an amine group, a carboxyl group, and various side chains.
Animal that subsists on foods of animal origin.
An -NH2 chemical group
A -COOH chemical group.
Essential Amino Acid
One which cannot be synthesized by the body and must therefore be consumed in the diet.
A nitrogen-containing compound found in urine and created as a byproduct of the use of protein for energy.
A short chain of amino acids.
A peptide hormone responsible for regulation of blood sugar.
A regulatory compound capable of affecting cells throughout the body.
Very long chain of amino acids.
Primary protein in connective tissue.
Digestive enzyme which breaks down starch.
Order in which amino acids appear in a protein, affecting its physical and chemical properties.
The genetic material of a cell, in which inherited traits are carried.
Unit of genetic information.
To change the physical and chemical properties of a protein through the action of heat, acid, or other factor.
Digestive enzyme which breaks protein down.
The action of carbohydrate in preserving muscle. If inadequate carbohydrate is consumed, muscle is broken down to supply blood glucose.
Transport protein for lipids
The physiological principle that the body tries to maintain constant conditions.
Substance dissolved in a solvent.
The degree of acidity or alkalinity in a fluid, caused by an imbalance of hydrogen ions.
A charged particular formed when a molecule splits in two.
Substance which maintains a constant pH in a solution by absorbing or releasing hydrogen ions as needed.
The movement of water from an area of low solute concentration to an area of high solute concentration through a membrane.
The force generated by the attraction of the solute on the solvent. Causes osmosis.
A type of protein energy malnutrition characterized by emaciation and abdominal edema.
Protein that controls and facilitates a chemical reaction.
Substance that participates in and controls a chemical reaction without itself being consumed.
The material acted on by an enzyme.
A substance from which another substance is formed.
Substance used to bridge the gap of the nerve synapse and transmit nerve impulses.
A gap between nerve cells.
Foreign protein which trigger response by immune system
Immune protein used to attack foreign proteins.
Production of glucose from amino acids, used when carbohydrate stores are depleted.
Essential Amino Acid
One which cannot be syntehsized by the body and mus therefore be consumed in the diet.
Conditionally Essential Amino Acid
One which cannot be synthesized only under certain conditions, and must be consumed in the diet under these conditions.
The net flow of a nutrient into an organism, resulting in gain or loss of the nutrient.
Limiting Amino Acid
The amino acid in the shortest supply during protein synthesis, resulting in cessation of synthesis.
A measure of the degree to which an absorbed nitrogen is retained. nitrogen is here used as a surrogate for protein.
A comparison of the amino acid composition of a particular protein with a reference protein (egg).
Protein Digestibility-Corrected Amino Acid Score
A form of chemical score of protein quality that also accounts for the digestibility of the protein. Gives a realistic measure of a protein's contribution to meeting needs.
One who eats only plant foods and dairy products.
One who eats only plant foods, eggs, and dairy products.
One who eats only foods of plant origin.
Practice of combining two proteins to improve their amino acids proportions through mutual supplementation.
Protein Energy Malnutrition (PEM)
A deficiency of both protein and energy-marasmus and kwashiorko
A type of PEM characterized by severe emaciation.
Accumulation of fluid.
Urine formation by the kidney.
"Water-hating". Repelled by water.
"Fat-loving". Attracted by lipid.
A complex chemical containing carbon in its structure. Often formed in a biological process.
A type of lipid formed by three fatty acids arrayed on a glycerol backbone. Most fats occur in the .... form.
A type of lipid similar to a triglyceride in which one of the fatty acids is replaced by a phosphorous-containing compound.
A type of lipid with a multiple ring structure, such as cholesterol.
A lipid formed of a chain of carbon atoms, saturated by hydrogen atoms to varying degrees, with a methyl group on one end and a carboxyl group on the other.
The chemical group -CH3
The chemical group -COOH
The characteristic number of chemical bonds formed by a particular chemical element.
Saturated Fatty Acid (SFA)
A fatty acid in which all of the carbon-carbon bonds are single bonds. It is saturated with hydrogen atoms, that is, it contains all the hydrogen it can in its structure. Found in animals products.
Point of Unsaturation
A double bond in a fatty acid. Not saturated by hydrogen atoms; more hydrogen ould be added were the double bond to be split.
Monounsaturated Fatty Acid (MUFA)
A fatty acid containing a single point of unsaturation, that is, a single double bond, in its structure. Found in vegetable fats.
Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid (PUFA)
A fatty acid containing more than on point of unsaturation, that is, more than one double bond, in its structure. Found in vegetable fats.
An 18:2 omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid. An essential fatty acid.
A 20:5 omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid. Found in fish.
A 22:6 omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid. Found in fish.
An 18:3 omega-3 fatty acid. An essential fatty acid. Found in flax, canola, and soy oils.
A process by which unsaturated fats become saturated. Hot hydrogen gas is bubble through the fat. Some of the double bonds break, to be replaced by extra hydrogen atoms. Can be carried through to any degree of saturation.
Unsaturated fat in which one of the double bonds is in the transform. Formed in partially hydrogenated fats when double bonds break and reform. Not found in nature.
The off-flavor caused by oxidation of lipids.
The process by which free radical oxygen attacks a double bond in a fat.
A very reactive species of oxygen, in which one of the electrons has been lost, created an unstable electron shell. Attacks lipids and other cellular substances.
Substance which protects cellular components against oxidation by reacting with free radical oxygen itself.
Sterol with multiple ring structure, synthesized by the body and used to manufacture steroid hormones and other substances. Found only in animal foods.
A non-absorbable fat substitute made by attaching fatty acids to a sucrose backbone.
A single fatty acid attached to glycerol. Formed by digestion of triglyceride.
Large lipoprotein that transports lipid from the gut, delivering dietary triglyceride to body cells and cholesterol to the liver.
Enzyme attached to artery wall that breaks down triglyceride from lipoprotein into free fatty acids and glycerol.
Made within the body.
Very Low Density Lipoprotein (VLDL)
Lipoprotein formed in the liver which transports endogenous triglyceride to body cells. It also receives cholesterol from HDL for return to the liver.
High Density Lipoprotein (HDL)
Lipoprotein which scavenges cholesterol from body cells and arterial plaque and transfer it to VLDL remnants for return to the liver and excretion. Associated with a lower risk of heart disease.
Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL)
Lipoprotein formed in the liver which transports cholesterol to body cells and arterial plaques. Associated with a higher risk of heart disease.
Protein on a cell membrane which recognizes and binds a specific substance in the blood, such as LDL or estrogen.
Arterial lesion formed by deposit of cholesterol.
The amount of energy contained in a given weight or volume of food. A food with high energy density contains a large amount of energy in a small amount of the food.
lipid regulatory substance with a local effect. Made from long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids.
Essential Fatty Acid (EFA)
Fatty acid necessary to the operation of the body but not capable of being synthesized by the body. Must be present in the diet. The two ... are linoleic acid and alpha-linleic acid.
Coronary Heart Disease
A disease caused by atheroscleorsis that results in a narrowing and thickening of arterial walls leading to insufficient blood flow to heart muscle and possibly resulting in heart attack.
The study of disease processes.
The thickening and narrowing of artery walls caused by the invasion of cholesterol.
Chest pain caused by ischemia.
Insufficient bloody flow.
Death of heart muscle from oxygen deprivation caused by blockage of arteries leading to the heart. A heart attack.
Brain damage from oxygen deprivation caused by blockage of arteries to the brain.
The study of the cause of disease.
Factors known to be associated with a higher risk of developing a particular disease. Risk factors may or may not be a cause of disease.
Chemical which causes cancer.
A genetically determined, energy efficient metabolism, requiring few calories for daily activities. In an environment of scarce food, such as found in prehistoric times, a ... allowed the storage of seasonally abundant food as body fat for use in times of food shortage. In a modern environment with a large surplus of calories, a ... contributes to the development of obesity.
Pertaining to anabolism.
Pertaining to catabolism.
Body processes that create more complex compounds for energy storage or for the synthesis of tissue.
Body processes that break down complex compounds for energy release or for tissue breakdown.
Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)
High energy chemical compound used in the body to transfer energy from nutrients to various life processes.
Body processes involving involuntary activities only, such as breathing, heartbeat, and chemical reactions.
Thermic Effect of Food (TEF)
Energy expended in digesting, absorbing, transporting, storing, metabolizing, and otherwise handling food. Amounts to about 10% of ingested calories.
Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR)
Rate at which basal metabolism occurs.
Resting Energy Expenditure (REE)
The day's total energy expenditure through basal metabolism only.
Total Energy Expenditure (TEE)
The sum of energy expenditure through REE, physical activity, and TEF.
Body Mass Index (BMI)
A height-weight relationship used to assess obesity. Equal to weight in kilograms over height in meters squared.
The number of cases of a condition in a given population or the proportion of the population suffering from that condition.
The increase in risk seen in a high risk group over that seen in the lowest risk group.
Body Impedance Analysis (BIA)
A method of measuring body composition utilizing the fact that lean tissue, with a high water content, conducts electricity relatively well, while fat tissue, with a low water content, conducts electricity poorly. If a mild electric current is passed through the body, the body's impedance, or resistance to current flow, indirectly indicates its fat content.
The body fat depot found right under the skin.
The body fat depot found inside the abdominal cavity.
The body fat depot found interspersed within the muscle fibers.
A pattern of body fat distribution in which most body fat is carried abdominally; the "apple shape".
A pattern of body fat distribution in which most body fat is carried on the hips and thighs; the "pear" shape.
Hip to Waist Ratio
A measure used to define android obesity. A value of greater than 1.1:1 is considered to indicate such.
A cessation of normal menstruation caused by inadequate estrogen levels resulting from excessively low body fat. Causes bone mineral loss leading to weakened bones.
Female Athlete Triad
The combination of low bone density, amenorrhea, and eating disorder sometimes seen in female athletes with very little body fat.
Tissue growth through an increase in cell number.
Tissue growth through an increase in cell size.
Of or pertaining to body weight; i.e., bariatric surgery.
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