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tuning out information that is irrelevant to immediate goals, including access to your memory stores.
planning or executive
suppresses strong desires when they conflict with moral, ethical, or practical concerns.
Consciousness is an ambiguous term that can refer to a general state of mind or to its specific contents.
Non-conscious processes are bodily activities that rarely impinge on consciousness, such as digestion, regulation of blood pressure, and breathing.
Preconscious memories are those that become accessible to consciousness only after something has called attention to them.
Unattended information refers to stimuli that are not the focus of attention but that may be processed below awareness. If these stimuli become relevant (e.g., hearing your name at a cocktail party), it may become the subject of consciousness.
The unconscious, first elaborated by Freud, refers to mental processes that cannot be conscious and contain forbidden, traumatic thoughts. Contemporary researchers examine the more benign aspects of the unconscious.
Stage 1 sleep is characterized by brain waves of about 3 to 7 cps.
Stage 2 sleep is characterized by sleep spindles, minute bursts of electrical activity of 12 to 16 cps.
Stage 3 sleep is characterized by deep relaxation and brain wave activity of about 1 to 2 cps.
Stage 4 sleep is characterized by even deeper relaxation and very slow brain wave activity.
Circadian rhythms—the human time cycle—influence arousal levels, metabolism, heart rate, body temperature, hormonal activity, and other bodily processes. Circadian rhythms are close to twenty-four hours.
Insomnia is the inability to get a satisfactory amount or quality of sleep and is characterized by an inability to fall asleep, frequent arousal, or early morning awakening.
Narcolepsy is characterized by a periodic compulsion to sleep during the daytime.
Sleep apnea is an upper respiratory sleep disorder in which the person stops breathing while asleep, which causes the sufferer to awake immediately and begin breathing again.
Nightmares and sleep terrors are more likely to occur in childhood and after traumas. Sleep terrors occur during NREM sleep.
The discovery of sleep cycles and the discovery of REM vs. NREM sleep were the two important breakthroughs in sleep research.
The electroencephalogram (EEG), which records electrical brain wave activity, provided a methodological breakthrough in sleep research.
As an individual prepares for bed, brain wave activity averages about 14 cycles per second (cps).
In The Interpretation of Dreams - dreams a cornerstone of psychoanalysis. “wish fulfillment” of powerful, unconscious desires that were disguised in dream form.
the manifest content of a dream includes the actual images, thoughts and content contained within the dream
Meditation is a form of consciousness change designed to enhance self-knowledge and well-being by reducing self-awareness.
Concentrative meditation involves using focus to clear the mind of thought.
Mindfulness meditation is when the person lets thoughts go freely through their mind without analysis.
reduce anxiety and stress.
increase cortical thickness in the auditory and somatosensory cortex.
Tolerance may be developed to psychoactive drugs in which more and more of the drug is needed to produce the same change in consciousness.
Physiological dependence is a process in which the body becomes accustomed to the presence of a drug and begins to depend on its presence to function properly.
Psychological dependence is when an individual finds cravings for drugs so strong that they adopt lifestyles which allow use of the drug and often impair functioning. This can occur with or without a physiological dependence.
Hallucinogenic or psychedelic drugs, including LSD, mescaline, psilocybin, and PCP, can produce profound alterations of perceptions of the outer environment and inner awareness. They often lead to a loss of boundary between self and non-self and to confusion.
Cannabis, including both marijuana and hashish, can create mild, pleasurable highs, distortions of space and time, euphoria, and occasionally, hallucination. Possible negative effects include fear, anxiety, paranoia, confusion, and retardation of motor function. Cannabinoids, the active chemical in marijuana, binds to specific receptors in the hippocampus designed for endocannabinoids like anadomide.
Opiates (e.g., heroin, morphine, OxyContin) suppress physical sensation and stimulation and produce a rush of euphoria. These drugs are strongly addictive.
Depressants, such as barbiturates and alcohol, tend to depress or slow mental and physical activity of the body by inhibiting the transmission of nerve impulses in the central nervous system at synapses using GABA.
Stimulants, such as amphetamines, cocaine, and crack, induce a sense of euphoria, self-confidence, and hyperalertness. Possible negative effects include paranoid delusions, cycles of euphoric highs and painful lows, and social isolation.
Learning is a process whereby experience leads to a relatively consistent change in behavior or behavior potential.
J. B. Watson founded the school of behaviorism which dominated American psychology for 50 years
B. F. Skinner’s radical behaviorism suggests that all behavior can be understood in terms of an organism’s inherited characteristics and simple learned behavior.
feelings and introspection are not verifiable;not data for science. Psychology should focus on observable behavior. Mental events do not cause behavior but are caused by environmental stimuli. Behaviorism - development of behavior analysis, focuses on environmental determinants of behavior. Behaviorists and behavior analysts assume that learning is conserved across species (that the learning process is similar across all animal species). Thus, animals are often used to study learning phenomena.
Classical conditioning, sometimes called Pavlovian conditioning, is a basic form of learning whereby an environmental event (or stimulus) predicts the occurrence of another event.
Delay conditioning is usually the most effective conditioning approach, whereby the CS comes prior to and stays on at least until the UCS is presented. The optimal time between the UCS and CS varies depending on the nature of the CS and the CR.
Trace conditioning: The CS is turned off before the UCS onset.
Simultaneous conditioning: The CS and UCS are presented at the same time. Resulting conditioning is relatively poor.
Backward conditioning also creates relatively poor performance. Here, the CS is presented after the UCS.
Savings also occurs after extinction. Here, if the UCS and CS are again paired after extinction, the CS–UCS association is learned more quickly. The difference in the time taken to learn the association initially and to relearn it after extinction is called savings.
Rescorla demonstrated that contiguity and contingency (CS’s ability to reliably predict the UCS) is necessary for classical conditioning. Rescorla and Kamin’s works demonstrated that a neutral stimulus will become a CS only if it is contingent and informative.
Learning involves an association between a stimulus and a response. (A stimulus–response connection leads to learning.) The process of trial and error builds stimulus–response connections mechanistically. The Law of Effect says that behaviors that are followed by pleasant, positive consequences are likely to increase in frequency.
The purpose of experimental analysis of behavior was to discover the ways that environmental conditions affect the likelihood that a given response will occur.
An operant is any behavior emitted by an organism that affects the environment. It can be defined in terms of the observable effects it has on the environment.
A reinforcement contingency is a consistent relationship between a response and the changes in the environment that it produces.
A reinforcer is any stimulus that increases the probability of that response when the reinforcer is made contingent on a response.
In escape conditioning, the organism learns a response that allows escape from an aversive stimulus.
In avoidance conditioning, the organism learns a response that allows prevention of an aversive stimulus.
Discriminative stimuli are stimuli that predict reinforcement, signaling to the organism when a behavior will result in positive reinforcement. Thus, they set the context for a behavior
The three-term contingency is the sequence of discriminative stimulus–behavior–consequence that Skinner believed explained most human behavior.
Secondary gains are subtle reinforcers (e.g., attention, sympathy, or release from responsibility) that reinforce behaviors that may have obvious associated negative consequences.
Primary reinforcers are biologically determined (e.g., food, water).
Conditioned reinforcers are otherwise neutral stimuli that over time have become associated with primary reinforcers. Money, grades, social approval, and gold stars can all act as conditioned reinforcers.
Conditioned reinforcers can be more effective and easier to use than primary reinforcers because
few primary reinforcers are readily available;
conditioned reinforcers can be dispensed rapidly;
conditioned reinforcers are portable; and
the reinforcing effect of conditioned reinforcers may be more immediate.
Token economies are contexts, such as psychiatric hospitals and prisons, in which desired behaviors are explicitly defined and in which tokens are given by staff for performance of these behaviors. The tokens can later be redeemed for privileges or goods.
The partial reinforcement effect occurs when a behavior is not reinforced on every performance, but it is reinforced on some performances. Responses acquired under schedules of partial reinforcement are more resistant to extinction than those acquired with continuous reinforcement.
In a fixed-ratio schedule (FR), reinforcement comes after the organism has emitted a fixed number of responses. FR schedules produce high response rates because there is a direct correlation between responding and reinforcement.
In a variable-ratio schedule (VR), the average number of responses between reinforcements remains constant, but the actual number of responses between reinforcements varies around this average. VR schedules produce the highest response rates and the greatest resistance to extinction.
In a fixed-interval schedule (FI), reinforcement is delivered for the first response made after a fixed period of time has elapsed. Response rates under an FI schedule show a scalloped pattern. Immediately after reinforcement, response rates are low, but as the time interval nears expiration, response rates increase.
In a variable-interval schedule (VI), the average time interval between reinforcements is predetermined. This schedule generates a moderate but stable response rate.
Shaping is a method of behavior modification in which small, successive approximations to the desired behavior are reinforced. For shaping to be effective, one must define progress toward the target behavior, and differential reinforcement schedules can be used to refine behavior.
Cognition is any mental activity involved in the representation and processing of knowledge (e.g., thinking, remembering, perceiving, and talking).
Observational learning refers to learning done vicariously. In observational learning, an organism simply observes another perform a behavior, notes the consequences, and modifies its own behavior in a future, similar situation. It is not unique to humans.
Cognitive processes are higher mental processes like perception, memory, language, and reasoning.
Cognition is a general term for all forms of knowing (e.g., attending, remembering, reasoning and understanding concepts, facts, propositions, and rules).
Cognitive science is an interdisciplinary field that extends the principles of cognitive psychology to other systems that manipulate information.
Serial processes require separate examination of each individual element in an array, one after another.
Parallel processes entail the simultaneous examination of all elements in an array.
The goal of much cognitive psychology research is to design experiments to confirm each component of models that combine serial and parallel, controlled and automatic processes.
Language production refers to what people say, as well as the complex processes they go through to produce the message.
Audience design, shaping a message to fit an audience, requires that one must have in mind the audience to which an utterance is directed and what knowledge you share with members of that audience.
(H. Paul Grice) suggests that a speaker prepares to produce utterances that are appropriate to the setting and meaning of an ongoing conversation.
-Quantity: Make your contribution as informative as is required, but not more than is required.
- Quality: Try to make your contribution one that is true
-Relation: Be relevant
- Manner: Be perspicacious, avoid obscurity of expression, avoid ambiguity, and be brief and orderly.
presumption of the listener knowing all that the speaker knows. Judgments of common ground are based on three sources of evidence:
- Community Membership: Assumptions on what is mutually known
-Copresence for Action: Assumptions of earlier convo as common ground
-Perceptual Copresence: Listener and Speaker share perceptions
Lexical ambiguity involves determining which of the various meanings of a word may be appropriate in this context. To eliminate this ambiguity is referred to as “disambiguating” the word.
Structural ambiguity involves determining which of two (or more) meanings the structure of a sentence implies and is dependent largely on prior context for resolution.
People use context to powerfully and efficiently resolve ambiguity.
The Sapir–Whorf hypothesis suggests that differences in language create differences in thought.
Linguistic relativity is the most supported hypothesis of Sapir–Whorf. It suggests that structural differences between languages will generally be paralleled by nonlinguistic cognitive differences in the native speakers of the two languages.
Problem solving and reasoning require a combination of current information and information stored in memory to work toward a particular goal, a conclusion, or a solution.
Problem solving involves goal-directed thinking aimed at solving a problem that moves from an initial state to the goal by means of reasoning.
-Initial state—the incomplete information or unsatisfactory conditions with which you start.
-Goal state—the set of information or state of the world you hope to achieve
-Set of operations—the steps you may take to move from the initial state to the goal state
An ill-defined problem exists when the initial state, the goal state, and/or the operations may be unclear and vaguely specified.
Algorithms are step-by-step procedures that always provide the right answer to a particular type of problem.
Functional fixedness is a “mental block” that adversely affects problem solving by inhibiting the perception of a new function for an object.
Deductive reasoning is a process in which one draws logical conclusions between two or more statements or premises.
It requires reformulation of an interchange and defines the apparently logical relationships between statements that will lead to conclusions.
Inductive reasoning is a form of reasoning that uses available evidence to generate likely, but not certain, conclusions.
It allows access to tried-and-true methods that speed current problem solving.
Analogical problem solving occurs when one comes to understand a current situation through its analogy between features of the current situation and those of previous ones.
H. Simon suggests that decisions and judgment might not be as good, as rational, as they always could be, but that they result from applying limited “rational” resources to situations that require immediate action. We have modest abilities and live in complex environments.
Judgment is the process by which you form opinions, reach conclusions, and make critical evaluations of events and people. Judgments are often made spontaneously, without prompting.
Decision making is the process of choosing between alternatives, selecting and rejecting available options.
Judgment and decision making are interrelated processes.
Heuristics are informal rules of thumb that provide problem-solving shortcuts. They reduce the complexity of making judgments and generally increase the efficiency of thought processes, and they are often correct.
Most researchers accept a dual-process model of judgment and decisions making. One process is fast, efficient, and automatic, and the other is slower, deliberate, and conscious.
availability heuristic suggests that people often make decisions based on readily available information in memory. The availability heuristic may lead to faulty decisions because of two factors:
(i) Memory processes can bias decisions.
(ii) Information stored in memory is often inaccurate.
The representativeness heuristic suggests that people use past information about similar present circumstances. It may lead to faulty decisions when the typical past is unlike the present.
(i) It causes you to ignore other relevant information.
(ii) You fail to be guided by accurate representations.
The anchoring heuristic suggests that people often compare up and down from an original, often arbitrary, starting point. This may lead to insufficient adjustments when making a probability, price, or cost decision.
A frame is a particular description of a choice, most often perceived in terms of gains or losses.
Framing a decision in terms of gains or losses can influence the decision that is made.
Knowledge of framing effects can help you understand how people come to radically different decisions when faced with the same evidence.
Decisions involving a wide range of opportunities (e.g., a person’s career) cause the most regret.
When there are clear, unambiguous costs, decisions cause more regret.
After regret, people ponder later decisions more.
Psychological assessment is the use of specified testing procedures to evaluate the abilities, behaviors, and personal qualities of people
-Differences in intelligence were quantifiable.
-Differences among individuals were normally distributed across populations.
-Intelligence could be measured objectively.
-The extent to which two sets of test scores were related could be statistically determined by a “co-relation,” later to become correlation.
-Reliability indicates that instruments must provide consistent scores.
-Validity indicates that instruments must measure what the assessor intends it to measure.
-Standardization indicates that instruments must be administered to all persons in the same way under the same conditions.
Intelligence is a very general mental capability that involves the ability to reason, plan, solve problems, think abstractly, comprehend complex ideas, and learn from experience.
-Binet developed an objective test that could classify and identify developmentally disabled children.
-He designed age-appropriate test items.
-His test computed average scores for normal children at different ages expressed in mental age and chronological age.
-A test score is interpreted as an estimate of current performance, not as a measure of innate intelligence.
-Scores identify children needing special help. Binet did not want scores to stigmatize children.
-He emphasized training and opportunity.
-He constructed his test on empirical (not theoretical) data.
The Stanford–Binet Intelligence Scale
This test was adapted for American school children by Lewis Terman of Stanford University.
It provided a base for the concept of intelligence quotient (IQ), with “IQ being the ratio of mental age (MA) to chronological age (CA), multiplied by 100” (in order to eliminate decimals).
Thus, IQ = (MA ÷ CA) × 100.
The Wechsler Intelligence Scales
developed by David Wechsler, was first published in 1939.
The WAIS-III is designed for individuals 18 years old and older, and has six verbal and five performance subtests:
(f) digit span
(a) block design
(b) digit symbol
(c) picture arrangement
(d) picture completion
(e) object assembly
Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children
4th ed. (WISC-IV) (2003) is designed for children 6 to 17 years old.
Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence
3rd ed. (WPPSI-III) (2002) is designed for children four to six-and-a-half years old.
Mental retardation is diagnosed if the individual’s IQ is approximately 70 to 75 or below, there are significant disabilities in two or more adaptive skill areas, and the age of onset is below 18.
Giftedness label usually involves an IQ score above 130; however there is controversy as to additional guidelines. Longitudinal studies have found gifted students tend to do well and be well adjusted in later life.
is the field of psychology that specializes in metal testing and measures. Psychometrics is based on a statistical technique called factor analysis.
The goal of factor analysis is to identify the basic psychological dimensions of the concept being investigated.
Charles Spearman concluded presence of g, a general intelligence underlying all intelligent performance.
Raymond Cattell determined general intelligence could be broken into two relatively independent components:
(i) crystallized intelligence is the knowledge the individual has already acquired and the ability to access that knowledge.
(ii) fluid intelligence is the ability to see complex relationships and solve problems.
Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory of Intelligence
This theory stresses the importance of cognitive processes in problem solving.
Three types of intelligence characterize effective performance:
Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences
This is an expanded theory of intelligence, beyond skills tested on IQ tests. Numerous intelligences cover a range of experience including: linguistic, naturalistic, logical–mathematical, spatial, musical, kinesthetic (motor), interpersonal, and intrapersonal abilities. Gardener characterizes people as lasers, those with high IQ in one or two areas, and as searchlights, those with high IQ in many areas.
Emotional intelligence (EQ) is related to interpersonal and intrapersonal intelligences. EQ is reflected in four abilities:
-Ability to perceive, appraise, and express emotions appropriately
-Ability to use emotions to facilitate thinking
-Ability to analyze emotions and use emotional knowledge effectively
-Ability to regulate emotions to promote emotional and intellectual growth
Heritability is based on an estimate within a given group but cannot be used to interpret between group differences.
A heritability estimate of a particular trait, such as intelligence, is based on the proportion of the variability in test scores on that trait that can be traced to genetic factors.
Environments and IQ
Research has most often focused on global measures of environment (e.g., socioeconomic status) in considering its influence on IQ scores.
Preschool intervention outcomes suggested two things:
IQ can easily be affected by the environment.
Enriched environments must be sustained to maintain positive outcomes.
Creativity is the individual’s ability to generate ideas that are both novel and appropriate to the circumstances in which they were generated.
Assessing creativity often focuses on one’s divergent thinking skills, or the ability to generate a variety of unusual but appropriate solutions to a problem
Convergent thinking is integrating different sources to come up a novel solution. It is often measured by tests that assess insight.
The primary goal of psychological assessment is to make accurate assessments of people that are as free as possible of errors of assessors’ judgments or biases.
The fairness of test-based decisions (bias toward or against members of different cultures)
The utility of tests for evaluating education
The implications of using test scores as labels to categorize individuals
Motivation is the process involved in starting, directing, and maintaining physical and psychological activities. The term motivation is used to describe mechanisms involved in the process, as well as the intensity and persistence of the process-related responses.
To relate biology to behavior
To account for behavioral variability
To infer private states from public acts
To assign responsibility for actions
To explain perseverance despite adversity
1. Drives and Incentives
a) Drive is defined in biological terms as internal states that arise in response to an organism’s physical needs.
b) Drive theory was fully developed by Hull, who believed motivation was necessary for learning to occur.
c) Tension reduction is reinforcing, but is not sufficient to explain all types of motivated behavior.
d) Behavior can also be motivated by incentives, external stimuli, or rewards that do not relate directly to biological needs.
Social-learning theory developed the importance of expectation in motivating behavior. Rotter and his contemporaries hypothesized that the probability of engaging in a given behavior is determined by the following:
(i) Expectation of goal attainment following the activity
(ii) Personal value of that goal to the individual
Heider posited that behavioral outcome can be attributed to the following:
(i) Dispositional forces, such as lack of effort or low intelligence
(ii) Situational forces, such as a biased exam or instructor
Maslow posited that the individual’s basic motives formed a hierarchy of needs, with needs at each level requiring satisfaction before achieving the next level.
Biological, Safety, Attachment, Esteem, Cognitive, Esthetic, Self-Actualization,
The protein leptin is important in satiation, and genetic studies show obese people often inherit low levels of this.
Herman and Polivy
Herman and Polivy propose the dimension underlying the psychology of eating behaviors to be restrained versus unrestrained eating.
(i) Restrained eaters put constant limits on amount of food they will let themselves consume.
(ii) Restrained eaters gain weight even when dieting, because they become periodically disinhibited and indulge in high-calorie bingeing.
(iii) Psychological consequences of constant dieting can create circumstances more likely to lead to weight gain than to weight loss.
Anorexia nervosa: Individual weighs less than 85 percent of expected weight, but continues to express fear of becoming fat. Characterized by overcontrol of food intake. These individuals may also be bulimic.
Bulimia nervosa: Characterized by periods of intense, out-of-control eating, or bingeing, followed by efforts to purge the body of excess calories through self-induced vomiting, misuse of laxatives, and/or fasting.
Human Sexual Arousal and Response
1. Hormonal activity has no known effect on sexual receptivity or gratification in most men and women.
2. Sexual arousal is the motivational state of excitement and tension resulting from physiological and cognitive reactions to erotic stimuli. Erotic stimuli can be physiological or psychological.
a) Men and women have similar patterns of sexual response.
b) Although the sequence of phases of the sexual response cycle is similar in the two sexes, women are more variable, tending to respond more slowly but often remaining aroused longer.
c) Many women can have multiple orgasms, while men rarely do so in a comparable time period.
d) Penis size is generally unrelated to sexual performance (other than the attitude of the male regarding having a large penis).
Excitement occurs in conjunction with vascular changes in pelvic region, including erection of penis and clitoral swelling; sexual flush appears
Plateau: maximum level of arousal is reached, with increased heart rate, respiration, and blood pressure; vaginal lubrication increases and breasts swell
Orgasm: intense, pleasurable release from sexual tension; very high respiration rate, blood pressure, and heart rate
Resolution: body returns gradually to normal, pre-excitement state.
Evolution of Sexual Behaviors
1. Male role tends toward short-term mating, giving signs of loyalty and commitment followed by leaving the female
2. Female role is more inclined to long-term mating, attraction of a loyal male who will remain with her, helping to raise her children (parental investment)
3. This is one very basic difference between males and females.
4. It is also seen in patterns of jealousy.
Sexual norms are culturally acquired behaviors that are considered to be appropriate for expression of sexual impulses.
Sexual scripts are socially learned programs of sexual responsiveness that include expectations of what to do; when, where, and how to do it; with whom or with what to do it; and why it should be done. Sexual scripts include not only expectations of appropriate behavior for ourselves, but also expectations of appropriate partner behavior.
Date rape results from conflict between gender’s sexual scripts.
Research indicates that for both genders, unwanted sex was related to perceiving male- female relationships as adversarial.
b) Specific correlation was the male script that females will offer token resistance to avoid appearing promiscuous.
Several lines of research show homosexuality is a least partly biological.
Bem’s exotic becomes erotic theory hypotheses an environmental influence on sexuality.
Homophobia is a highly negative attitude toward homosexuals.
Homosexuals report a very early understanding of their sexuality, often in a hostel environment and typically hidden from others.
Murray postulated a need for achievement (n Ach) as a variable that fluctuated in strength in different people, and influenced their tendency to approach success and evaluate their own performances
McClelland used the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) to measure strength of n Ach.
n Ach reflected individual differences in the importance of planning and working toward attainment of one’s goals.
a) High scores on n Ach reflected upward mobility.
b) High n Ach individuals have a need for efficiency.
c) Level of n Ach may derive from parenting practices.
Attributions are judgments about the causes of outcomes that can impact the level of motivation. Attributions can vary along three dimensions: locus of control, stability versus instability, and global versus specific. Attribution will impact both emotions and subsequent motivation settings, regardless of the true reason for success or failure; thus beliefs are important.
Locus of control orientation is a belief that outcomes of our actions are contingent on the following:
(i) What we do (internal control orientation)
(ii) Environmental factors that are outside our personal control (external control orientation)
The dimension of stability versus instability can be assessed by asking to what extent is a causal factor likely to be stable and consistent over time.
The global versus specific dimension can be assessed by asking to what extent is a causal factor highly specific and limited to a particular task or situation.
Seligman Explanatory Style
a) Pessimistic attributional style focuses on causes of failure as being internally generated, with the situation and one’s role in causing it as stable and global.
b) Optimistic attributional style attributes failure to external causes and to events that are unstable or modifiable and specific.
c) Causal explanations reverse when the outcome is a success.
Organizational psychologists study various aspects of human relations and work-related quality of life and apply management, decision making, and development theory to work settings.
Equity theory proposes that workers are motivated to maintain fair or equitable relationships with other relevant persons.
Expectancy theory proposes that workers are motivated when they expect their efforts and job performance will result in desired outcomes.
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