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Secondary (aquired) deficiencies which are related to complications of other physiologic or pathophysiologic conditions, NOT genetic defects.
Serologically negative (no detectable antibody)
serologically positive but asymptomatic (positive for antibody against HIV)
early stages of HIV
1) AIDS virus incorporates into the genetic material of the host an dmay never be removed by antimicrobial therapy. Therefore drug admin to control virus may have to continue for lifetime.
2) HIV may persist in regions where antiviral drugs are not as effetive, such as the CNS
1) AIDS virus is genetically and antigenically variable, like the flu.
2) high levels of circulating antibodies against the virus do not appear to be protective.
Therefore, a vaccine may have to induce both circulating and secretory antibody and cytotoxic cells to prevent initial infection of the mucosal T cell.
CBC= Information on the number of red cells, WBCs, and platelets
Dif = Indicates quantity of lymphocytes, granulocytes, and monocytes in the blood
Determines quanities of immunoglobulins (IgG, IgM, IgA
If a complement defect is suspected, what can be done to prove that?
An assay which tells total complement (hemolytic complement, CH50),
Skin, liver, mouth, eyes, gastrointestinal tract, or death from infections.
Are simple microorganisms consisting of nucleic acid and layers of protein.
Incapable of independant reproduction. No metabolism. Must have a permissive host cell. Enters host through binding of virion on plasma membrane. Self limiting infection, can't survive for long outside of host.
Penetrates plasma membrane by receptor mediated endocytosis, by viral envelope fusion with plasma membrane, or directly crosses plasma membrane.
Generally all RNA viruses EXCEPT influenza and retroviruses*superfreaky* replicate their genetic material in the cytoplasm of infected cell
All DNA viruses EXCEPT poxviruses require the DNA to enter the nucleus and use the cell’s DNY polymerases to replicate
The release of new virions is often termed the productive or lytic cycle because the result is often the destruction of the host cell after progeny are produced
During latency phase the viral DNA may be integrated into the DNA of the host cell
The virus may exit latency and enter productive cycle in response to stimuli such as stress, hormonal changes, or disease
The developing immune response eventually cures the infection so that the disease is usually self-limiting in that it resolves without the need for medications.
What cells are important in controlling fungi?
Fungi can grow with wide temp variations in lower ox environemnts and some can suppress host immune defenses.
Diseases caused by fungi are called mycoses (superficial, deep, or opportunistic).
Dermatophytes invade skin, hair, and nails. The dieases they cause are tineas (ringworm), tinea capitis, pedis,and cruris.
superficial dermatophytes grow in a ringlike, erythematous patch with a raised border itching often is intese and cracking of tissue can occur and lead to secondary bacterial infection.
Deep infections enter body through inhalation or open wounds. Filamentous forms can multiply extracellularly but spherical yeasts multiply WITHIN cells, including WBCs
Fungal drugs such as amphotericin B, ketoconazole, fluconazole are used to treat deep infections but are toxic to the host because the fungal cell composition is similar to the host cell
What are some diseases from fungal infection through skin contact?
1) Cessation of DNA, RNA, and protein synthesis 2)Disruption of lysosomal membranes 3)Fusion of infected adjacent host cells 4)alteration of antigenic properties 5) Transformation of host cells into cancerous cells 6)secondary bacterial infection ***her notes say it is apoptosis... not sure what the deal is there***
Fusion of infected adjacent host cells
Protozoal and helminth infections include Enteritis, pnemonia, toxoplasmosis (CNS infections)
Fungal infections include candidiasis, crptococcosis, hystoplasmosis
Bacterial infections include mycobacteriosis
What are some causes of acquired immune deficiency other than AIDS?
What are the cells affected by HIV/AIDS?
Selective overgrowth due to overuse of antibiotics leads to selective resurgence
What is a threat to homeostasis called?
Alarm Stage – arousal of body defenses
Stage of Resistance/Adaptation-mobilization contributes to fight or flight
Stage of Exhaustion – progressive breakdown of compensatory mechanisms
-onset of diseases of adaptation
Other body cells will receive their supply of glucose via the breakdown of trigylcerides to fatty acids leaving the brain and muscles with the bulk of the glucose.
Fight-or-Flight–Need to maintain blood pressure –Need to have fuel sources in the blood for energy to fight or flee –Need to shut down nonessential functions, Protect from injury(increased blood coagulability)
types of psychological stressors are reactive, anticipatory, conditional
-↓cellular immunity of Tc, NK macrophages, pro-inflammatory response
decrease Th1 and increase Th2 activity
realistic and flexible thinking and acts that solve problems and thereby reduce stress
•Repression •Denial •Escape-Avoidance •Concealment
Tumor – swelling
Neoplasm – new growth
Benign Grow slowly Well-defined capsule Not invasive Well differentiated cells Low mitotic index Do not metastasize
Well differentiated cells
Low mitotic index
Do not metastasize
Poorly differentiated cells - anaplasia
High mitotic index
Can spread distantly (metastasis)
Once a primary tumor site has been identified, precise staging will include information about the primary Tumor, its size, and involvement of local, underlying tissues; Node involvement including number and the mobility of the nodes; and the presence of Metastasis - observed or suspected.
independence from normal controls or their autonomy. The cells are also characterized by their loss of differentiation or anaplasia. As we can recall cells become more differentiated to perform special functions. As differentiation is lost, those functions are also lost. With anaplasia, marked increase in nuclear size, and evidence of ongoing proliferation are observed. While normal cells have uniform size and shape, anaplastic cells have irregular in shape and size or pleomorphic.
1. Screen and identify individuals at high risk for cancer
2. Diagnose specific types of tumors
3. Observe clinical course of cancer
Tumor cell markers (biologic markers) are substances produced by cancer cells or that are found on plasma cell membranes, in the blood, CSF, or urine
–Hormones - catecholamines –Enzymes - –Genes – BRCA1, BRCA2 –Antigens - PSA –Antibodies -
Alteration of progrowth and antigrowth signals•Secretion of growth factors (autocrine stimulation) •Increased growth factor receptors •Signal from cell-surface receptor is mutated in the “on” position •Mutation in the ras intracellular signaling protein •Contact with other cells, with basement membrane and soluble factor are antigrowth •Inactivation of Rb tumor suppressor •Activation of protein kinases that drive the cell cycle •Mutation in the p53 gene inhibits apoptosis
This is not the case with cancer cells since they activate telomerase to restore their telomeres and continue to divide.
Genetic differences seem to exist between cells that metastasize and those that do not. Decreased cell-to-cell adhesion, protease secretion to digest barriers, and ability to grow in new locations is important to spread.
Mutation of tumor-suppressor genesresults in what and requires how many hits?
Implicated–Hepatitis B and C viruses – liver cancer –Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) – B cell lymphoma –Kaposi’s sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV) - –Human papillomavirus (HPV) - cervix –Human T cell leukemia–lymphoma virus (HTLV)
Chronic infections are associated with:•Peptic ulcer disease •Stomach carcinoma •Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphomas
EBV-induced post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease
HPV- induced vulvar and cervical cancer
The Ras protein in many cancer cells drives secretion of cytokines that stimulate inflammatory cells to secrete growth factors and pro-angiogenic factors.
What does local tumor spread consist of?
Direct invasion of contiguous organs
Metastases to distant organs–Lymphatics and blood
Patterns of Spread
Vascular and Lymphatic pathways
Selectivity of different cancer for different sites.
The normal cells most likely to be damaged are those that divide rapidly:
bone marrow/blood cells
cells of hair follicles
cells lining the digestive tract
cells lining the reproductive tractDamage to these cells accounts for many of the side effects of chemotherapy drugs.
Cancers characterized by histology
1 in 900 between 15 and 45 a survivor of childhood cancer
Childhood tumors are usually diagnosed in peak times of growth and are usually fast-growing. Many have peak incidence before 5 years of age – think about how much children grow in this period.
***2nd leading cause of death of children over 1 yoa
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