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What is the source of minerals usedby plants as nutrients? How are these
minerals (ions) transported throughthe plant?
Compare how plants deal with freelymobilized nutrients versus non-freely
mobilized nutrients. Where dodeficiencies show first for each of these nutrient
Define essential nutrients, macronutrients,and micronutrients.
macronutrients do plants require?What are they? Which of these macronutrientsare found in the soil?
How are essential nutrientsidentified in plants (experimentally)? Describe someeffects/patterns of nutrient deficiencies inplants.
Essential nutrients are identifiedby growing the plants in hydroponic cultures where only one nutrient iseliminated at a time. Nutrient deficiencies have characteristic foliagepatterns.
N deficiency = yellowing of leavesP deficiency = stunted growth, dead spots
Define hummus. Where can one findthe hummus layer? In what ways are living
organisms (includingmicroorganisms) important to plants? Provide at least 6examples of important soil-dwelling organisms.
Humus is the rich, dark organicmateral formed by the decaying of vegetable matter. Living organisms areimportant to plants because they aerate the soil and add essential nutrients tothe soil.Soil-dwelling organisms = Protists, Nematodes,Fungi, Bacteria and Archae, ants, earthworms, and beetle grubs
A horizon = Topsoil consisting ofdifferent size classes of broken down rock, organic matter from decayingorganisms (humus) and many living organisms.
B horizon = Less organic matter,Less broken down rockC horizon = Even less broken down “parentmaterial”
Give three examples oftopsoil. What are characteristics of each ofthese examples?
Are soil particles positivelycharged, negatively charged, or hold no charge? Why
is the charge of soil particlesimportant to root absorption? What role do inorganic
fertilizers play in all of this?Name three elements often added back into the soilvia these inorganic fertilizers.
Define cation exchange capacity.How is cation exchange capacity measured? Inwhat ways does acid rain affect cations in thesoil?
Cation exchange capacity is ameasure of soil fertility, it is determined by the number of adhesions sitesand soil pH. Acid rain causes a permanent loss of cations from the soil as thenutrients are replaced by H+ ions.
What’s the optimal pH for mostplants? How does this compare to the pH of mostsoils? How do plants acidify the soil?
In what portion of the roots arenutrients absorbed? What are root hairs? How dothey aid in nutrient absorption in the roots?
The zone of maturation. Root hairsare tubular outgrowths which increases surface area provided and enhances theuptake of soil solution and its associated nutrients.
Define mycorrhizal associations.
What are there significance? Aremycorrhizal associations common in plants? Is
this symbiotic relationshipmutualistic or parasitic? Explain.
Mycorrhizal associations aremutualistic associations between Mycorrhizae (fungi) and plant roots.Mycorrhizae extend the surface area of the roots up to 700%. These associationsappear in almost all plant species. This relationship is mutualistic becausethey imbed into the root hairs and get sugar from the plants.
In what two forms is nitrogen (N)absorbed by plant roots? Why can’t plants
absorb N from the atmosphere whereit is abundant? How do plants get the N theyneed?
Is this symbiotic relationship between root hairs and free-living soil bacteria mutualistic or
parasitic? Does the process ofnitrogen fixation take a lot of energy, a littleenergy, or no energy at all? Define root nodule.
Provide three other means in whichplants have adapted to acquiring nutrients without using their root system.What are epiphytes? How do bromeliads (a type of epiphyte) trap and absorbnutrients and water if they lack a root system anchored in soil? Provide an example of a parasiticplant. What makes this example parasitic?
List three types of carnivorousplants. List the steps of the carnivorous plant syndrome.
Carnivorous plants (Venus flytraps, pitcher plants, sundews): Steps of Carnivorous plant syndrome. Attract,Trap, Retain, Kill, Digest, Absorb, Use. The leaves from these plants areadapted to absorb nutrients from insects because they usually live inenvironments with acidic soil.
Provide definitions for taxonomy,systematics, phylogeny/phylogenetic tree, and taxon.
Taxonomy = The classification andnaming of organisms
Systematics = the study ofdiversity and relationships among organisms
Phylogeny = evolutionary history ofa group of organisms
Phylogenetic Tree = A reconstruction of evolutionary history of any level of life (genes, individuals, populations, species, or major groupsTaxon = Any group of species that we name
What are the importance of phylogenies? Provide an example showing each importance.
What is a systematist? What is agoal in modern systematicstudies?
What is meant by ‘monophyleticgroups are
Be able to identify root, branch,and node/split if given a phylogenetic tree.Define sister taxon and polytomy.
Define homologous traits,synapomorphies, outgroup, andingroup.
Why is DNA sequence data so usefulin building phylogenies? Often, how are phylogenies based on DNA sequencedata constructed (i.e., what type of technology is needed)? Would therebe more possible trees (tree topologies) for 10 taxa or 100 taxa?
What are different criteria todetermine the most likely phylogenetic relationships amongorganisms? Does this provide us with the absolutely correct answer regardingthe evolutionary history of the organisms inquestion?
In the ‘whale’ example discussed inlecture, do morphology and genetic materials always give the samestory regarding the evolutionary history ofwhales? What does the morphology tell us? Whatdoes the molecular data tell us?
Define mitosis and cytokinesis. How are they different?
What is the difference betweeninterphase and mitosis? How much time in thecell cycle (%) does a cell spend in interphase? How much time does it spend in mitosis?
What are the three stage ofinterphase?
What are characteristics of each ofthese stages?
How many chromosomes do humans typicallyhave? Therefore, how many chromosome pairsdo humans have?
What does the term homologouschromosomes mean? Where do these homologous chromosomescome from? Are homologous chromosomes identical to one another?
How many pairs of autosomes do humanshave? How many pairs of sex chromosomes do humans have? What sex chromosomepairing results in a female? What sex chromosome pairing results in a male?
In humans, where does meiosisoccur? Name two cell types in humans that are produced throughmeiosis. Are these cells diploid or haploid? Are cells that enter meiosis diploid orhaploid?
After a single parent cellundergoes meiosis,how many daughter cells are produced ultimately?
prophase I- replicated chromosomes condense and pair w/their homologous chromosome ending up w/2 pairs od sister chromatids then crossing over occurs
metaphase I- tetrads move to the equator and sister chromatids attach to spindle fibers
annaphase I- sister chromatids travel as a pair toward opposite poles
telophase I- cytokenesis occurs reducing diploid # to haploid #
Meiosis 2 no crossing over, end w/4 haploid nuclei
Would a sexual organism or anasexual organism (if all other things kept constant) produce more offspring after 3generations? Provide an explanation.
Why is sex advantageous? Explainyour answer using the two hypotheses discussed in class.
List the three domains of life.Which of these domains possess prokaryotes? Which domains consist of eukaryotes?
What is a defining characteristicof a eukaryote? Provide some examples of organismsfound in Eukarya.
From what type of organism didgreen plants evolve? Are algal organisms monophyletic?
Name at least four major groups ofland plants. When (in geologic time) did land plants first evolve?When did vascular tissue in plants first evolve? When did gymosperms first evolve? When didangiosperms first evolve?
Are green algae diverse? Provide an explanation? List four characteristics do green algae and land plants share?Which two groups of green algae are most similar to land plants? What adaptations were necessary for plants to be successful on land?
What is sporopollenin? Why would itbe important for land plants to have spores that possess sporopollenin?
What is a bryophyte? What are some synapomorphies (unique characteristics) for this group? List at least fourother characteristics of bryophytes. Do bryophytes have seeds? Do they have vasculartissue?
In mosses, are sperm motile? Howabout
eggs? What is the name of thestructure where sperm are housed? Where are eggs
housed? In mosses, which part of thelife cycle are they diploid? Which part of
their life cycle are they haploid?What part of their life cycle do they undergomitosis? Meiosis?
What are the two key differences inthe life cycle of bryophytes compared to the green algae (specificallycoleochaetes and stoneworts)? List two benefits the archegonium provides to thedeveloping zygote? What characteristic of coleochaetes and stoneworts are shared with landplants?
Do lycophytes and pteridophyteshave vascular tissue? Do they have seeds? Provide some examples of plants that arelycophytes and pteridophytes.
Which of the following is thoughtto be the earliest living vascular land plant: bryophytes, lycophytes, pteridophytes,gymnosperms, or angiosperms?
At what point in geologic time was thelandscape dominated by huge lycophytes? When is it thought that these tree-sizedlycophytes went extinct? List several characteristics of extant (living) lycophytes.
What makes up the group called“ferns”? When we look at a typical fern frond are we looking at the gametophyteof sporophyte stage of this plant? In vascular plants, which life stage (gametophyte orsporophyte) is dominant?
In ferns, which part of the life cycle are they diploid?Which part of their life cycle are they haploid? What part of their life cycle do they undergomitosis? Meiosis?
What is the difference between homosporous andheterosporous?Are sperm, eggs, or both motile in lycophytes and pteridophytes?
Which type of sporangium gives riseto sperm? To eggs? Which sex produces seeds in gymnosperms and angiosperms? Which sexproduces pollen in gymnosperms and angiosperms?
Why is pollen considered anevolutionary innovation (i.e., how does it change the requirements for fertilization)?
When does the earliest fossilgymnosperm date back to? What time period in geologic time did gymnospermsdominate? How many recognized gymnosperm phyla are there? Which of thesephyla has the fewest living species? Which has the most living (extant) species?
Which phylum is considered to be ofgreatest
economic importance? What are someliving examples of gymnosperms? Provide four examples. What are four sharedderived characteristics (synapomorphies) of gymnosperms?
Which is larger, the sporophyte orgametophyte of a pine? Do gymnosperms produce fruit?
Does what we think of as a‘typical’ pinecone
house male or female reproductiveorgans? What does the integument of the megasporangium give rise to?
Is the sperm of conifers motile ornon-motile? Up to how long can pollination to seed dispersal take in conifers?
Describe the progression frommegasporangium -> megaspore -> megagametophyte -> egg. Do the same for the stages in the male phase.
Why is the origin of angiosperms amystery? In what ways are Archaefructus sinensis considered a mixture ofangiosperms and non-angiosperms? What are considered the most ancient living lineages ofangiosperms?
Why are angiosperms considered themost successful plant group on the planet? How many species of angiosperms are there?
Some flowers specialized for particular pollinators
Birds – odorless red flowers
Bees – blue, purple, yellow or white flowers with a sweet odor
If pollinator becomes extinct, plant may also face extinction
What would the flowers of a plant pollinated bywind look like? How would they smell? Wouldthey have markings only detected in the UV rangeof visibility?
What would the flowers of a plant pollinated by abee look like? Would they be fragrant? Wouldthey have markings detectable in the UV range?
What colors do butterflies see? Moths? Birds? Name at least two other animalsthat are pollinators.
Be able to identify the parts of aflower. What three parts make up the carpal? What two parts make up the stamen?Does the stamen or the carpal make up the female reproductive organ? What part becomes the fruit? Typically how many microsporangia do the anthers house?
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