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A large mass of perennial ice resting on land or floatingsheet like in the sea adjacent to the land, formed from the accumulation andrecrystalization of snow, which then flows slowly under the pressure of its ownweight and the pull of gravity.
temporary line marking the elevation where winter snow fallpersist throughout the summer, seasonally the lowest elevation covered by snowduring the summer.
Glacier confided in a mountain valley or walled basin,consisting of three subtypes valley glacier piedmont glacier at the base of amountain speeding freely over nearby lowlands and outlet glacier
Floating ice created by large pieces of ice calving andfloating adrift a hazard to shipping because 6/7 of the ice is submerged andcan be irregular in form.
A continuous mass of unconfined ice, covering at least 50,000km most extensive at present as ice sheets covering Greenland and Antarctica.
An enormous continuous continual glacier the bulk of glacialice on Earth covers Antarctica and Greenland in two ice sheets.
the least extensive form of a glacier with mountain ridges andpeaks visible above the ice, less than an ice cap or ice sheet
Loss of glacial ice through melting sublimation wind removalby deflation, or the calving of the blocks of ice.
A vertical crack that develops in a glacier as a result offriction between valley walls, or tension forces of extension on convex slopes,or compression forces on concave slopes
the rapid, lurching, unexpected forward movement of a glacier.
formed by two headward eroding cirques that reduce an arête toform high pass or saddlelike narrow depression.
A pyramidal sharp pointed peak that results when severalcirque glaciers gouge an individual mountain summit from all sides.
Marginal glacial deposits of unsorted and unstratifiedmaterial.
Debris transported by glacier that accumulates along the sidesof the glacier and is deposited along these margins.
Debris transported by glacier that accumulates down the middleof the glacier resulting from two glaciers merging their lateral moraines formsa depositional feature following glacier retreat
Eroded debris that is dropped at glaciers farthest extent.
Forms when an isolated block of ice persists in ground morainean outwash plain or valley floor after a glacier retreats as the block finallymelts it leaves behind a steep sided hole that frequently fills with water.
A glacial erosion feature an asymmetrical hill of exposedbedrock displays a gently sloping upstream side that has been smoothed andpolished by a glacier and an abrupt steep downstream side.
A depositional landform related to glaciations that iscomposed of till and is streamlined in the direction of continual ice movementblunt end upstream and tapered end downstream with a rounded summit.
cold climate processes landforms and topographic featuresalong the margins of glaciers past and present periglacial characteristicsexist on more than 20% of earths land surface includes permafrost frost actionand ground ice.
a dynamic natural body made up of fine materials coveringEarth’s surface in which plains grow, composed of both mineral and organicmatter.
The various layers exposed in pendon roughly parallel to thesurface and identified as O A E B C and R
a mixture of organic debris in the soil worked by consumersand decomposers in the humiliation process, characteristically formed fromplant and animal litter deposited at the surface.
the downward movement and deposition of finer particles andminerals from the upper horizon of the soil, a depositional process depositionusually is in the B horizon, where accumulations of clays, aluminum carbonatesiron and some humus occur.
A true soil profile in the pedon, ideally a combination of O AE and B horizons.
a soil classification system based on observable soilproperties usually seen in the field. Published in 1975 by the U.S Soil conservation service and revised in 1990and 1998 by natural resources conservation service to include 12 soil orders.
The illuviated accumulation of calcium carbonate or magnesiumcarbonate in the B and C soil horizons.
A pedogenic process in cool, moist climates, forms a highlyleached soil with strong surface acidity because of humans from acid richtrees.
A process of humus and clay accumulation in cold, wet climateswith poor drainage.
a soil order in the soil taxonomy tropical soils that are olddeeply developed, and lacing in horizons wherever well drained, heavilyweathered low in cation exchange capacity and low in fertility.
A soil order in the soil taxonomy. Moderately weathered forestsoils that are moist versions of mollisols, with productivity dependent onspecific patterns of moisture and temperature, rich in organics. Most wideranging of the soil orders.
A soil order in the soil taxonomy. Specifically lacks verticaldevelopment of horizons usually young or undeveloped. Found in active slopes,alluvial filled floodplains, and poorly drained tundra.
A soil order in the soil taxonomy. Weakly developed soils thatare inherently infertile, usually young soils that are weakly developedalthough they are more developed then entisols.
A soil order in the soil taxonomy. Formed from thickaccumulations of organic matter, such as beds of former lakes, bogs, and layersof peat.
The basic function or occupation, of a life form within agiven community, the way an organism obtains its food, air and water
The process by which plants produce their own food from carbondioxide and water powered by solarenergy. The joining of carbon dioxide and hydrogen in plants, under theinfluence of certain wave lengths of visible light, releases oxygen andproduces energy rich organic material sugars and starches.
the process by which plants oxidize carbohydrates to deriveenergy for their operations, essentially the rivers of the photosyntheticprocess, releases carbon dioxide, water and heat energy into the environment
The net photosynthesis for given community, considers allgrowth and all reduction factors that affect the amount of useful chemicalenergy fixed in an ecosystem.
The total mass of living organisms on Earth or per unit areaof landscape also the weight of the living organism in an ecosystem.
A zonation by altitude of plants and animals that formdistinctive communities. Each life zone possesses its own temperature and precipitation relations.
The physical orchemical fact that most inhibits biotic processes, through either lack orexcess.
organism in an ecosystem that depends on producers for itssource of nutrients also called heterotroph.
Theory that single cell organisms adapted, modified and passedalong inherited changes to multicellular organisms. The genetic logicalfunctions, and behaviors that created a greater rate of survival andreproduction and were passed along thorough natural selection.
The process whereby different and usually more complexassemblages of plants and animals replace older and usually simplercommunities, communities are in a constant state of change as each speciesadapts to changing condtions. Ecosystems do not exhibit a stable point orsucessonal climax condition as previously thought.
The initial plant community in an area, usually is found onnew surfaces or those that have been stripped of life, as in beginning primarysuccession includes lichen, mosses, and ferns growing on bare rock.
Succession that occurs among plant species in an area whervestiges of a previously functioning community are present an area where thenatural community has been destroyed or disturbed btut where the underlyingsoil remains intact.
One of eight regions of the biosphere, each representative ofevolutionary core areas of related flora and fauna a broad geographical classificationsheme.
A self regulating association on land characterized byspecific plant formations, usually named for the predominate vegetation andknown as a biome when large and stable.
A large, stable terrestrial ecosystem characterized byspecific plant communities and formations, usually named after the predominatevegetation in the region.
variable biome on the margins of the rain foreset occupyingregions of lesser and more erratic rainfall, the site of transitionalcommunities between the rain forest and tropical grasslands.
A biome in moist continental climates in areas of warm to hotsummers and cool to cold winters relatively lush stands of broadleaf foreststrend north ward into needleleaf evergreen strands.
Consists of pine spruce fir and larch sand stretches from theeast coast of Canada westward to Alaska and continuing from Siberia westwardacross the entire extent of Russia to the European Plain called the taiga orthe boreal forest principally in the micro thermal climates includes montaneforests that may be at lower latitudes at higher elevations.
A major biome of lush forests at middle and high latitudes occursalong narrow margins of the Pacific Northwest in North America, among otherlocations, includes the tallest trees in the world.
A major biome dominated by the Mediterranean climate andcharacterized by sclerophyllous scrub and short, stunned, tough forests.
The major biome most modified by human activity so namedbecause of the predominance of grassland plants, although deciduous broadleaf’sappear along streams other limited sites, location of the world’s breadbasketsof grain and livestock production.
arid landscape of uniquely adapted dry climate plants andanimals.
A type of desert biome found at higher latitudes than warmdeserts. Interior location and rain shadows produce these cold deserts in NorthAmerica.
A biome in the northernmost portion of North America andNorthen Europe and Russia featuring low ground level herbaceous plants as wellas some woody plants.
Tundra conditions at high elevation.
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