the sender--person, group, or organization--of the message
the extent to which a source is perceived as having knowledge, skill, or experience relevant to a communication topic and can be trusted to give an unbiased opinion or present objective information on the issue
process by which a credible source influences a message recipient. Internalization occurs when the receiver is motivated to have an objectively correct position on an issue and the receiver will adopt the opinion or attitude of the credible communicator if he or she believes the information from this source represents an accurate position on the issue.
a phenomenon in which the persuasiveness of a message increases over time
a source characteristic that makes him or her appealing to a message recipient. Source attractiveness can be based on similarity, familiarity, or likability.
the process by which an attractive source influences a message recipient. Identification occurs when the receiver is motivated to seek some type of relationship with the source and adopt a similar position in terms of beliefs, attitudes, preferences, or behavior.
the power of a source as a result of his or her ability to administer rewards and/or punishments to the receiver.
type of influence process where a receiver accepts the position advocated by a source to obtain favorable outcomes or to avoid punishment
theory that the first information presented in the message will be the most likely to be remembered
theory that arguments presented at the end of the message are considered to be stronger and therefore are more likely to be remembered.
communications in which only positive attributes or benefits of a product or service are presented
message in which both good and bad points about a product or claim are presented
type of message in which both sides of the issue are presented in the communication, with arguments ordered to refute the opposing viewpoint
practice of either directly or indirectly naming one or more competitors in an advertising message and usually making a comparison on one or more specific attributes or characteristics.
advertising message that creates anxiety in a receiver by showing negative consequences that can result from engaging in (or not engaging in) a particular behavior.
tendency for a television or radio commercial to lose its effectiveness when it is seen and/or heard repeatedly
qualitative media effect
positive or negative influence the medium may contribute to the message
nonprogram material that appears in a broadcast environment, including commercials, promotional messages for shows, public service announcements, and the like.
determination of what an advertising message will say or communicate to a target audience
determination of how an advertising message will be implemented so as to execute the creative strategy
ability to generate fresh, unique, and appropriate ideas that can be used as solutions to communication problems
process of conducting research and gathering all relevant information about a client's product, service, brand, and consumers, in the target audience for use in the development of creative strategy as well as other aspects of an IMC campaign
general preplanning input
information gathering and/or market research studies on trends, developments, and happenings in the marketplace that can be used to assist in the initial stages of the creative process of advertising
product/service-specific preplanning input
specific studies provided to the creative department on the product or service, the target audience, or a combination of the two
creative research approach in which consumers familiar with a product (or service) are asked to generate an exhaustive list of problems encountered in its use.
a qualitative marketing research method whereby a group of 10 to 12 consumers from the target market are led through a discussion regarding a particular topic such as a product, service, or advertising campaign
research technique that involves observing or studying consumers in their natural environment
series of drawings used to present the visual plan or layout of a proposed commercial
preliminary version of a commercial whereby a videotape of the frames of a storyboard is produced along with an audio soundtrack
comprehensive advertising plan that consists of a series of messages in a variety of media that center on a single theme or idea
central message or idea that is communicated in all advertising and other promotional activities
document that specifies the basic elements of the creative strategy such as the basic problem or issue the advertising must address, the advertising and communications objectives, target audience, major selling idea or key benefits to communicate, campaign theme or appeal, and supportive information or requirements
major selling idea
basis for the central theme or message idea in an advertising campaign
unique selling proposition (USP)
advertising strategy that focuses on a product or service attribute that is distinctive to a particular brand and offers an important benefit to the customer
advertising that creates an identity for a product or service by emphasizing psychological meaning or symbolic association with certain values, lifestyles, and the like.
approach to advertising that focuses on the benefits or characteristics that lead a consumer to purchase a product or service and uses dramatic elements to emphasize them
basis or approach used in an advertising message to attract the attention or interest of consumers and/or influence their feelings toward the product, service, or cause.
creative execution style
manner or way in which a particular advertising appeal is transformed into a message
advertising appeals that focus on the practical, functional, or utilitarian need for a product or service and emphasize features, benefits, or reasons for owning or using a brand
advertising messages that appeal to consumers' feelings and emotions
ad that associates the experience of using the advertised brand with a unique set of psychological characteristics that would not typically be associated with the brand experience to the same degree without exposure to the advertisement
advertising designed to keep the name of the product or brand in the mind of the receiver
an ad designed to create curiosity and build excitement and interest in a product or brand without showing it
words in the leading position of the advertisement; the words that will be read first or are positioned to draw the most attention
headline that is very straightforward and informative in terms of the message it is presenting and the target audience it is directed toward. Direct headlines often include a specific benefit, promise, or reason for a consumer to be interested in a product or service
headlines that are not straightforward with respect to identifying a product or service or providing information regarding the point of an advertising message
secondary headlines in a print ad
physical arrangement of the various parts of an advertisement including the headline, subheads, illustrations, body copy, and any identifying marks.
message or action on the screen in a commercial that is narrated or described by a narrator who is no visible
term used in the advertising industry to refer to music that is prefabricated, multipurpose, and conventional and can be used in a commercial when a particular normative effect is desired.
songs about a brand or company that usually carry the advertising theme and a simple message
series of decisions involved in the delivery of an advertising message to prospective purchasers and/or users of a product or service
specific goals an advertiser has for the media portion of the advertising program
plans of action for achieving stated media objectives such which media will be used for reaching a target audience, how the media budget will be allocated, and how advertisements will be scheduled
general category of communication vehicles that are available for communicating with a target audience such as broadcast, print, direct mail, and outdoor
specific program, publication, or promotional piece used to carry an advertising message
number of different audience members exposed at least once to a media vehicle (or vehicles) in a given period
measure of the potential audience that might receive an advertising message through a media vehicle
number of times a target audience is exposed to a media vehicle(s) in a specified period
times of year in which television audience measures are taken (February, May, July, and November)
survey of buying power index
index that provides information regarding population, effective buying income, and total retail sales in an area.
brand development index (BDI)
index that is calculated by taking the percentage of a brand's total sales that occur in a given market as compared to the percentage of the total population in a market
category development index (CDI)
index that is calculated by taking the percentage of a product category's total sales that occur in a given market area as compared to the percentage of the total population in the market.
situation where the coverage of media exceeds the target audience
media scheduling strategy where a continuous pattern of advertising is used over the time span of the advertising campaign
media scheduling pattern in which periods of advertising are alternated with periods of no advertising
media scheduling method that combines flighting and continuous scheduling
number of persons reached once with a media exposure
percentage of TV households in an area that are tuned to a program during a specific time period
gross ratings points (GRPs)
measure that represents the total delivery or weight of a media schedule during a specified time period. GRPs are calculated by multiplying the reach of the media schedule by the average frequency.
target ratings points (TRPs)
number of persons in the primary target audience that the media buy will reach--and the number of times
measure of the percentage of a media vehicle's audience reached at each effective frequency increment
number of times the average household reached by a media schedule is exposed to a media vehicle over a specified period
cost per thousand (CPM)
computation used in evaluating the relative cost of various media vehicles that represents the cost of exposing 1,000 members of a target audience to an advertising message
cost per ratings point (CPRP)
computation used by media buyers
daily inch rate
readers per copy
national spot advertising
direct broadcast satellite (DBS) services
households using television (HUT)
share of audience
Nielsen Television Index
designated market areas
average quarter-hour (AQH) figure
average quarter-hour rating (AQH RTG)
average quarter-hour share (AQH SHR)
Portable People Meter
retail trading zone
general advertising rates
retail/local advertising rates
standard advertising units (SAUs)
run of paper (ROP)
preferred position rate
promotional products marketing
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