Name: ___________________________ NUTRITION 100 EXAM 2 1. The basic building block of a protein is called a(n) C. amino acid. 2. The chemical element found in all amino acids but not found in either carbohydrates or fats is B. nitrogen. 3. Which of the following is true about protein? C. It is made up of combinations of approximately 20 amino acids 4. An essential amino acid C. cannot be synthesized in sufficient quantity to meet body needs. . 5. The nitrogen from amino acid breakdown is C. converted to urea. 6. Which of the following is a food that provides all of the essential amino acids? D. Milk 7. What enzyme is released by the stomach to digest protein? A. Pepsin 8. If a food does not contain the necessary amounts of a certain amino acid to meet a body need, that amino acid is referred to as a C. limiting amino acid. 9. When protein consumption is in excess of body needs and energy needs are met, the excess amino acids are metabolized and the energy in the molecule is A. stored as glycogen and/or fat. 10. Approximately how many different amino acids are used in the synthesis of body proteins (how many amino acids exist)? C. 20 11. A hereditary condition caused by an incorrect amino acid in the amino acid sequence of a protein chain is: B. sickle cell anemia. 12. All the following are true of the alteration of the three-dimensional structure of a protein except C. is called denaturation. 13. Cooking an egg alters its appearance due to A. denaturation. 14. All the following are primary functions of protein except to C. supply more than 40 percent of the kcalories in the diet. 15. Wilma is an alcoholic. Her liver has been damaged to such a degree that it cannot output the appropriate blood protein for fluid balance. She develops a condition called edema, which is B. the build up of fluids in extra cellular spaces. 16. If a person does not eat enough carbohydrate to supply the glucose the body needs, which of the following will happen? C. The liver will convert amino acids to glucose 17. Which of the following is true about protein intake in the U.S. compared to the rest of the world? C. About 70 percent of the protein we eat in the U.S. comes from animal products 18. If Betty wants to eat the most complete source of protein she would eat . D. eggs. 19. Marasmus usually is associated with a deficiency of A. kcalories. 20. Kwashiorkor usually is associated with a deficiency of C. protein. 21. The major fat-digesting enzyme is D. pancreatic lipase. 22. To be transported throughout the body, fats are packaged in structures called C. chylomicrons. 23. A desirable total serum cholesterol level is less than ____ milligrams per deciliter. A. 100 24. In terms of heart disease risk, which of the following is true? C. As LDL-cholesterol levels increase there is an increased risk 25. Another name for alcohol is C. ethanol. 26. How much energy does alcohol contain? D. 7 kilocalories per gram 27. Beer is made from __________. A. Hops 28. Where is the chief site of alcohol metabolism? C. Liver 29. If a man and woman of similar size drink equal amounts of alcohol, the woman will metabolize less because she has B. a lower activity of alcohol dehydrogenase. 30. If alcohol is consumed, it should be in moderation with meals. Women are advised to drink no more than __________ drink(s) per day. B. 1 31. What is the name for the chronic and progressive disease characterized by fatty infiltration of the liver and eventual replacement with scar tissue? C. Cirrhosis 32. A social drinker who weighs 150 pounds can metabolize how approximately how many grams of alcohol per hour? B. 5 to 7 grams 33. Which statement about vitamins is true? C. Help regulate chemical reactions in the body 34. Water-soluble and fat-soluble vitamins differ in which way? B. Water-soluble are less likely to be toxic 35. Which fat soluble vitamins are most toxic if consumed in excess amounts or excessively supplemented? C. Vitamins A and D 36. The nutrient that can be considered both a vitamin and a hormone is B. Vitamin D. 37. All the following are true of B vitamins except D. are stored in the liver. 38. The vitamin that functions as a coenzyme, particularly in carbohydrate metabolism, is B. pyridoxine. 39. Which of the following is converted to vitamin A in the body? A. Retinol 40. A rich source of vitamin E is C. corn oil. 41. Niacin is necessary to prevent the disease D. pellagra. 42. What vitamin plays an essential role in amino acid metabolism? B. Pyridoxine (B6) 43. Formation and maintenance of collagen requires B. Vitamin C. 44. Vitamin E functions as a(n) B. antioxidant. 45. The childhood disease rickets is due to a deficiency. A. Vitamin D 46. This vitamin, when consumed during pregnancy, can help prevent neural tube defects like spina bifida. B. Folate/Folic Acid 47. Drying of the cornea due to vitamin A deficiency is called C. xerophthalmia. 48. An important role of vitamin K is the synthesis of D. prothrombin (clotting factor). 49. In general, excess amounts of water-soluble vitamins are excreted via the A. kidneys. 50. The vitamin that prevents beriberi is D. Thiamin. 51. The foods that provide the largest source of riboflavin in the American diet are C. milk and dairy products. 52. The vitamin that aids in activating fatty acids so they can yield energy is A. pantothenic acid. 53. A rich folate food source would be C. orange juice. 54. Vitamin B12 is supplied almost entirely by A. animal products. 55. All the following are antioxidants except D. Thiamin
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