1. Which of the following is an example of a COGNITIVE diathesis for depression? a. Neuroticism b. Optimism c. Attributing negative events to internal causes d. Attributing negative events to external causes 2. Amber feels anxious almost all the time. She finds herself worrying that her husband will leave her (although he has never shown any indication that he would), that she chose the wrong job, that her children might not be safe at their school, and that she might get sick and leave her family in financial ruin. She calls her husband almost everyday to find out when he will be home. She complains to her physician that she is always tired but cannot sleep or relax. Amber's most likely diagnosis is a. generalized anxiety disorder. b. generalized social phobia. c. panic disorder with agoraphobia. d. obsessive compulsive disorder. 3. It is fairly easy to condition monkeys and humans to fear snakes but almost impossible to condition either to fear a flower. This supports the ________ theory of phobias. a. classical conditioning b. vicarious conditioning c. preparedness d. psychoanalytic 4. What is one of the major ways the anxiety disorders differ from each other? a. Whether they have a genetic component. b. Whether they are treatable. c. Whether there are more fear/panic symptoms or anxiety symptoms involved. d. Whether the disorder is associated with other anxiety disorders. 5. A rapid return of symptoms immediately after drug treatment is terminated is a common example of ________; a return to depressive symptoms after a period of spontaneous remission of symptoms is called a ________. a. melancholia; recurrence b. recurrence; relapse c. relapse; recurrence d. mood-congruent depression; mood-incongruent depression 6. If a pharmaceutical company were looking for a drug that would maximally treat generalized anxiety disorder they would want one that a. suppressed the activity of the locus coeruleus in the brain stem and the central gray in the midbrain. b. decreased GABA levels while increasing norepinephrine. c. increased GABA levels while regulating serotonin. d. decreased serotonin levels and suppressed activity in the locus coeruleus. 7. ________ was once thought to be a fear of crowded places, but now is seen as a complication of having panic attacks in public. a. Agoraphobia b. Claustrophobia c. Generalized anxiety disorder d. General social phobia 8. Which of the following is NOT a brain area that has been found to exhibit abnormalities in depressed patients? a. Amygdala b. Basal ganglia c. Anterior cingulate gyrus d. Hippocampus 9. Childhood depression a. has been clearly linked to genetic factors. b. is more likely in children with a depressed parent. c. has not been associated with parental depression. d. can usually be causally related to marital discord. 10. A hypomanic episode is best described as a a. mild manic episode. b. short manic episode. c. manic episode characterized by inactivity. d. manic episode followed by symptoms of a mild depression. 11. While in treatment for panic disorder, Leroy is asked to engage in behaviors that activate the sympathetic nervous system. In other words, Leroy is engaging in behaviors that produce the physical sensation of fear. What type of treatment does this appear to be? a. Exteroceptive exposure b. Interoceptive exposure c. Anxiety sensitivity training d. Cognitive reconditioning 12. Two months after her husband's death, Connie was still not herself. She often forgot to feed the dog, was late for work on a regular basis, and had not yet thrown out his clothes. Which of the following diagnoses would apply to Connie? a. Adjustment disorder with depressed mood b. Dysthymia c. Postpartum depression d. Connie does not have a disorder. 13. Depression during adolescence a. is much rarer than during childhood. b. has little effect on adult functioning. c. can affect a person into young adulthood. d. is decreasing in prevalence. 14. According to Hammen's stress-generation model of depression, a. marital distress can lead to depression and depression can lead to marital distress. b. the source of most marital distress in the depression of one or both partners. c. the stress and depression caused by marital discord explains the higher suicide rate seen in those who are married. d. stress causes depression. 15. Which of the following is necessary for a diagnosis of cyclothymia? a. The occurrence of two or more episodes of major depression b. Unremitting symptoms for a period of at least two years c. Clinically significant distress or impairment d. The occurrence of at least one episode of anxiety 16. What is meant by the phrase "double depression"? a. Symptoms are consistent with two different subtypes of major depression. b. The individual has been diagnosed with an anxiety disorder and a mood disorder. c. Symptoms of both typical and atypical depression are exhibited. d. An individual with dysthymia later develops major depressive disorder as well. 17. Agoraphobia is best described as a fear of a. going to the dentist. b. attending public events. c. being judged by people. d. experiencing a panic attack. 18. Evolutionary preparedness explains a. why phobic people are likely to maintain their avoidance behavior. b. how the inflation effect works. c. why cognitive variables are so important in phobias. d. why some types of phobias are much more common than others. 19. Which statement about the risk of suicide is true? a. Depressed people are no more likely to commit suicide than nondepressed people. b. The risk of suicide is greatest at the lowest point in a depression. c. About half of people who complete suicide do so during or in the recovery phase of a depressive episode. d. Suicide is most likely when a person in a manic episode is getting "high." 20. Research on the role of genetics in the development of OCD suggests that a. there may be "neurotic" personality factors that increase susceptibility to OCD. b. altered serotonergic functioning is inherited. c. genes do not play a role in OCD. d. an abnormality on the X chromosome underlies OCD. 21. Which of the following might explain why rates of depression are low in China and Japan? a. Mental illnesses are not stigmatized, thus those who are depressed receive much social support and do not seek treatment. b. The heavy emphasis on the individual decreases the likelihood of blaming the self for failure. c. Symptoms of depression tend to be discussed as somatic. d. Blunted emotions characterize Asian peoples, so both positive and negative emotional extremes are rare. 22. One of the main functions that worry seems to serve in generalized anxiety disorder is a. it keeps people distracted from what is really bothering them. b. it keeps people with the disorder feeling happier than if they didn't worry. c. it prevents people with the disorder from developing depression. d. it keeps people from feeling the emotional and physiological consequences of anxiety. 23. Which of the following is a research finding that is inconsistent with the monoamine hypothesis of depression? a. Drugs that increase serotonergic activity are effective in treating depression. b. Increases in noradrenergic activity have been seen in the brains of depressed patients. c. Heightened sensitivity to drugs that increase GABA activity is commonly seen in individuals with bipolar disorder. d. Tricyclic antidepressants work by blocking monamine reuptake. 24. Virtual reality environments a. permit the use of a combination of exposure therapy, participant modeling, and stress inoculation. b. have been shown to be effective in treating agoraphobia. c. appear to be more effective in treating phobias than live exposure to the feared stimulus. d. allow exposure therapy to be conducted in a simulated setting. 25. Which of the following is a true statement about Mowrer's two-process theory of avoidance learning? a. It provides an explanation for the development of all anxiety disorders. b. While it suggests a mechanisms for the development of GAD, it does not account for the development of panic disorder and OCD. c. It does not account for the effectiveness of extinction procedures in the treatment of OCD. d. The two processes that it refers to are classical and operant conditioning. 26. Individuals who suffer from phobias a. are likely to believe that their fear is justified. b. suffer from uncued panic attacks. c. are unlikely to have other psychological diagnoses. d. avoid the feared stimulus. 27. A recurrent depressive episode a. is preceded by one or more previous episodes. b. suggests that chronic major depression has developed. c. typically lasts 2-3 weeks. d. is characteristic of all forms of bipolar disorder. 28. When Jill experienced her first panic attack, she felt as if she were outside of herself, watching herself struggle to catch her breath. Jill's sense of not being part of herself is one of the symptoms of a panic attack known as a. derealization. b. depersonalization. c. dissociative fugue. d. personality disintegration. 29. The cognitive model does not account for a. nocturnal panic attacks. b. the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral therapies. c. findings from panic provocation studies. d. evidence of a role for genes in anxiety disorders. 30. Which of the following seems to be the best treatment for phobias? a. Exposure therapy b. Psychoanalysis c. Cognitive restructuring d. Family therapy and a change in her work environment 31. Although bipolar I disorder is described as "bipolar," a. a depressed episode is not necessary for a diagnosis. b. few patients show both manic and depressed symptoms. c. both depressed and manic symptoms typically occur simultaneously. d. a year or two commonly passes between manic and depressed episodes. 32. John's erratic behavior finally ruined his marriage. What kind of life event would this be described as? a. Acute b. Chronic c. Dependent d. Independent 33. Which of the following is true? a. Most first time episodes of depression are preceded by a very stressful life event. b. Both first time and recurrent episodes of depression are usually preceded by a very stressful life event. c. Even mildly stressful events are associated with the onset of episodes of depression. d. Mildly stressful events are only associated with the onset of first time depression, not with recurrent episodes. 34. Neurotic behavior a. is maladaptive and means that a person is out of touch with reality. b. is a current term, used to describe many disorders in the DSM-IV-TR. c. is what we now refer to as "hysteria." d. is maladaptive but means that a person is not out of touch with reality. 35. Which of the following is NOT one of the five primary types of compulsive acts seen in individuals with OCD? a. Cleaning b. Checking c. Repeating d. Scanning 36. Which of the following is true of unipolar major depression? a. It does not begin until adolescence. b. It is equally common in men and women. c. It occurs five times as often in elderly people as in middle-aged adults. d. It is the most prevalent mood disorder. 37. Which of the following is true? a. Neither unipolar nor bipolar disorder have a strong genetic contribution. b. Both unipolar and bipolar disorders have a strong genetic contribution. c. Unipolar disorder is more strongly inherited than bipolar disorder. d. Bipolar disorder is more strongly inherited than unipolar disorder. 38. Fear is a basic emotion that involves a. concern about the future. b. the activation of the "fight or flight" response. c. negative thoughts, but not a change in physiological arousal. d. a complex blend of negative mood and self-preoccupation. 39. The individual with generalized social phobia a. has a specific phobia for all social situations. b. exhibits a fear of most social situations. c. typically has a fear of public speaking, using a public restroom, and restaurants. d. is likely to receive a diagnosis of generalized anxiety disorder. 40. Knowing what we know about the neurotransmitter imbalances in bipolar disorder, a physician should give which of the following pieces of advice? a. "Eat lots of foods that are rich in norepinephrine." b. "Don't take drugs that increase dopamine levels because they can produce manic-like behavior." c. "Stay away from drugs that include lithium because bipolar is associated with excessive lithium activity." d. "If you can keep your serotonin levels normal, you do not have to worry about having a manic episode." Test Name: s10exam3 1. c. Attributing negative events to internal causes 2. a. generalized anxiety disorder. 3. c. preparedness 4. c. Whether there are more fear/panic symptoms or anxiety symptoms involved. 5. c. relapse; recurrence 6. c. increased GABA levels while regulating serotonin. 7. a. Agoraphobia 8. b. Basal ganglia 9. b. is more likely in children with a depressed parent. 10. a. mild manic episode. 11. b. Interoceptive exposure 12. d. Connie does not have a disorder. 13. c. can affect a person into young adulthood. 14. a. marital distress can lead to depression and depression can lead to marital distress. 15. c. Clinically significant distress or impairment 16. d. An individual with dysthymia later develops major depressive disorder as well. 17. d. experiencing a panic attack. 18. d. why some types of phobias are much more common than others. 19. c. About half of people who complete suicide do so during or in the recovery phase of a depressive episode. 20. a. there may be "neurotic" personality factors that increase susceptibility to OCD. 21. c. Symptoms of depression tend to be discussed as somatic. 22. d. it keeps people from feeling the emotional and physiological consequences of anxiety. 23. b. Increases in noradrenergic activity have been seen in the brains of depressed patients. 24. d. allow exposure therapy to be conducted in a simulated setting. 25. d. The two processes that it refers to are classical and operant conditioning. 26. d. avoid the feared stimulus. 27. a. is preceded by one or more previous episodes. 28. b. depersonalization. 29. a. nocturnal panic attacks. 30. a. Exposure therapy 31. a. a depressed episode is not necessary for a diagnosis. 32. c. Dependent 33. a. Most first time episodes of depression are preceded by a very stressful life event. 34. d. is maladaptive but means that a person is not out of touch with reality. 35. d. Scanning 36. d. It is the most prevalent mood disorder. 37. d. Bipolar disorder is more strongly inherited than unipolar disorder. 38. b. the activation of the "fight or flight" response. 39. b. exhibits a fear of most social situations. 40. b. "Don't take drugs that increase dopamine levels because they can produce manic-like behavior."