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Which of the following is not evidence that charophytes are the closest algal relatives of plants?
the presence of chloroplasts
Which of the following characteristics of plants is absent in their closest relatives, the charophyte algae?
alternation of multicellular generations
In plants, which of the following are produced by meiosis?
Which of the following is a land plant that has flagellated sperm and a sporophyte-dominated life cycle?
Suppose an efficient conducting system evolved in a moss that could transport water and other materials as high as a tall tree. Which of the following statements about “trees” of such a species would not be true?
Females could produce only one archegonium.
Which of the following statements about algae and plants is true? ( Concept 29.1)
Plants have a waxy, waterproof cuticle, and algae do not.
Which of the following homologies are shared by land plants and their closest living algal relatives? ( Concept 29.1)
All of the listed responses are correct.
In moving to land, plants had to overcome which of the following challenges? ( Concept 29.1)
Alternation of generations _____. ( Concept 29.1)
is distinguished by haploid and diploid stages that are both multicellular
Plants undergo alternation of generations in which _____. ( Concept 29.1)
the sporophyte generation alternates with the gametophyte generation
In charophytes, _____ protect(s) zygotes from desiccation. ( Concept 29.1)
Which is a key difference between alternation of generations in plants and sexual reproduction in nonplant organisms? ( Concept 29.1)
In plants, the haploid and diploid stages are both multicellular.
The development of the _____ prevents plants from drying out and protects them from microbes. ( Concept 29.1)
Which example below is a clade of nonvascular plants? ( Concept 29.1)
Which term is most nearly synonymous with land plants? ( Concept 29.1)
A major division in plant systematics is based on whether a particular species has _____. ( Concept 29.1)
The gametophyte stage of the plant life cycle is most conspicuous in _____. ( Concept 29.2)
When you see a green, "leafy" moss, you are looking at the _____. ( Concept 29.2)
anchor the gametophytes of bryophytes
Which of the following produces eggs and sperm? ( Concept 29.2)
How are gametes produced by bryophytes? ( Concept 29.2)
by mitosis of gametophyte cells
In mosses, haploid _____ directly produce buds that grow into gametophores. ( Concept 29.2)
Which structure of a bryophyte sporophyte is specialized for gradual spore discharge? ( Concept 29.2)
Fertilization in moss occurs when sperm swim from a(n) _____ and down the neck of a(n) _____. ( Concept 29.2)
antheridium ... archegonium
In which bryophyte structure specifically does a zygote develop into an embryo?( Concept 29.2)
The gametophyte generation of a moss _____. ( Concept 29.2)
What is the evolutionary significance of megaphylls? ( Concept 29.3)
They increase the surface area for photosynthesis.
What structures allow plants to readily take up carbon dioxide from the atmosphere? ( Concept 29.2)
Sphagnum is a _____ that forms extensive deposits of partially decayed organic material. ( Concept 29.2)
The "dots" on the underside of a fern frond are spore cases; therefore, what is true of the plant to which the frond belongs? ( Concept 29.3)
It is a sporophyte.
In the life cycle of a fern, the multicellular male gametangium (the sex organ that produces sperm cells) is called a(n) _____. ( Concept 29.3)
Where would you find a fern gametophyte? ( Concept 29.3)
Fern gametophytes are _____. ( Concept 29.3)
free-living, multicellular organisms
Ferns and mosses are limited mostly to moist environments because _____. ( Concept 29.3)
they have swimming sperm
To examine meiosis in ferns, you would study _____. ( Concept 29.3)
Vascular tissues of plants include _____. ( Concept 29.3)
xylem for conducting water and minerals, and phloem for conducting dissolved organic molecules
Heterosporous plants produce _____. ( Concept 29.3)
megaspores that develop into female gametophytes and microspores that develop into male gametophytes
Sori can be found in which of the following? ( Concept 29.3)
In sporophyte ferns, the leaves are _____. ( Concept 29.3)
The first large forests formed in the Carboniferous Period. The drawdown of CO2 levels by all of these plants caused _____. ( Concept 29.3)
Among the characteristics unique to animals is
The distinction between sponges and other animal phyla is based mainly on the absence versus the presence of
Acoelomates are characterized by
a solid body without a cavity surrounding internal organs.
Which of the following was probably the least important factor in bringing about the Cambrian explosion?
the movement of animals onto land
Which of these is a point of conflict between the phylogenetic analyses presented in Figures 32.10 and 32.11?
the relationship of taxa of segmented animals to taxa of nonsegmented animals
Which characteristic below is shared by plants, fungi, and animals? ( Concept 32.1)
They are multicellular eukaryotes.
Animals probably evolved from colonial protists. How do animals differ from these protist ancestors? ( Concept 32.1)
Animals have more specialized cells.
During the development of most animals, cleavage leads to _____. ( Concept 32.1)
a multicelled blastula
Which trait below is a common feature of all animals? ( Concept 32.1)
a homeobox-containing family of genes called Hox genes
Many young animals are _____, a sexually immature form that is morphologically distinct from the adult stage. These young animals undergo _____ to become _____, which resemble adults but are not yet sexually mature. ( Concept 32.1)
larvae ... metamorphosis ... juveniles
Symmetry is one of the most basic characteristics of animals. The group that has a different symmetry from the other four groups listed here is the _____. ( Concept 32.3)
Which of the following is associated with bilateral symmetry? ( Concept 32.3)
"Cephalization" refers to having _____. ( Concept 32.3)
Which of the following correctly lists the embryonic stages in the order that they develop? ( Concept 32.1)
zygote, blastula, gastrula, larva
Which example below is a current hypothesis regarding the Cambrian explosion? ( Concept 32.2)
Evolution of the Hox gene complex provided developmental flexibility.
Unlike other animals, sponges _____. ( Concept 32.3)
lack true tissues
Which of the following occurred during the Mesozoic era? ( Concept 32.2)
Flight evolved in pterosaurs and birds.
Which of the following is a characteristic of cnidarians? ( Concept 32.3)
ectoderm and endoderm
In the embryo of a shark, ectoderm gives rise to _____; mesoderm gives rise to _____; endoderm gives rise to _____. ( Concept 32.3)
the central nervous system ... muscle ... the lining of the digestive tube
The presence of a coelom is advantageous because _____. ( Concept 32.3)
it allows room for the development and movement of internal organs
Indeterminate cleavage is a process that produces embryonic cells that _____. ( Concept 32.3)
retain the capacity to develop into a complete embryo
All animals with bilateral symmetry have _____ germ layer(s). ( Concept 32.3)
The zygotes of many protostomes undergo _____ cleavage and _____ cleavage. ( Concept 32.3)
determinate ... spiral
A true coelom is _____.
a body cavity lined with mesoderm
One of the primary developmental/anatomical characteristics distinguishing the major animal phyla is the condition of the body cavity. A pseudocoelomate animal is one in which the body cavity is _____. ( Concept 32.3)
formed from mesoderm and endoderm
An animal with a true coelom that has _____ cleavage must be a _____. ( Concept 32.3)
radial ... deuterostome
Which of the following is a trait shared by protostomes and deuterostomes?
a body cavity
Which of the following is characteristic of protostomes?
Cell fate is determined early during embryonic development.
The text describes two phylogenetic hypotheses regarding the relationships of the animal phyla. The tree that is based on molecular evidence differs from the tree based on morphological evidence in that it _____. ( Concept 32.4)
divides protostomes into two taxa
Which of the following is the defining characteristic of the clade Ecdysozoa for which this group is named?
the secretion of stiff external skeletons that must be shed to permit growth
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