A scholar learned in the literature of both the Latin and Greek early church writers and the most famous write of his age. Reconstructed the new Testament into vernacular.
Swiss reformer and theologian. Known for his emphasis on justification by grace alone, his "spiritual" understanding of the Eucharist, reliance on the Bible instead of church tradition and proclamations.
The French reformer and theologian who lead the city of Geneva through Reformation. Known for the doctrines of election and double predestination.
King Henry VIII
The King who led his country through the Reformation. Eventually broke away from Roman Catholics and became head of Church of England.
An admirer of the Martin Luther, the first to publish an English translation of major parts of the Bible.
Archbishop of Canterbury for most of the early years of the English Reformation. Highlighted similarities/differences between Church of England and Roman Catholics.
English theologian and reformer; founder of the Methodist Church.
John Henry Newman
A leader of the Oxford movement.
Ignatius of Loyola
Founder of the Society of Jesuits. A Spaniard, trained as a knight, but took up a life dedicated to the church after reading devotional books.
Teresa of Avila
A Spanish mystic and founder of the Discalced Carmelites. Her writings include the Life, an autobiographical account of her life, and the Interior Castle, a description of her method of prayer.
John of the Cross
A follower of Teresa of Avila, the cofounder of the Discalced Carmelites, a reform branch of the Carmelite order, and a Spanish mystic.
An Italian traveler who visited the lands of the Far East and returned to Europe to spread the news, sparking interest in exploration for commercial gain and missionary expansion.
An Arab scholar and traveler who was partly responsible for the European colonization and missionary efforts in Africa, because he revealed the presence of gold in that region.
Henry the Navigator
The Portuguese prince who explored and colonized Africa, spreading Christianity along the way.
Afonso the Good
Catholic king of the Congo who tried unsuccessfully to oversee the conversion of his people to Catholicism, while holding back the greed of the Portuguese colonists who were enslaving them.
Our Lady of Guadalupe
Title given to Mary, the mother of Jesus, based on her miraculous appearance to Juan Diego at Tepeyac, Mexico, in AD 1531.
Bartolomé de las Casas
The Spanish Catholic bishop in the territories of the New World who argued that the enslavement of the native peoples was immoral and should be stopped.
A companion of Ignatius of Loyola, the founder of the Jesuit order and the leader of the Catholic mission to India, Japan and China.
An Italian Jesuit known for his successful missionary work to China, especially his efforts to make Catholic Christianity intelligible in Chinese cultural terms.
A Polish Catholic astronomer who proposed a heliocentric model of our solar system.
Astronomer and scientist who attempted to prove the Copernican theory that the Earth revolves around the sun. He was disciplined by the church for advocating views that were contrary to the Bible and church teaching.
Mathematician and scientist who was able to explain the motion of the planets by means of natural laws rather than the will of God, and hence was major contributor in the development of the mechanistic view of the universe.
French philosopher, known for his skepticism about the value of tradition. He began his philosophical method by doubting everything he had been taught and believing only what could be shown by reason to be absolutely true.
An English scientist who developed the theory of evolution and the principle of natural selection.
The founder of Marxian socialism.
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