stream of conciousness conciousness moves, flows, changes
require alert awareness, attention, and interfere with ongoing activities performed serially (one process at a time) and slowly
occur with little awareness require minimal attention, and do not interfere much with other activities. performed in parallel (more than one process at a time) and quickly
decreases with age college age: spend about 1/3 waking time daydreaming
experience-sampling methods at a pager or pocket computer that randomly sounds throughout the day. it answers what are you doing, feeling, and thinking?
how can daydreaming be healthy?
no link found between daydreaming and poor mental health, it can help you relax, endure frustration, alleviate boredom, and rehearsing possible approaches to problems
people who can imagine and recall experience with life like vividness and spend considerable time fantasizing. about 4% of the population.
traits of fantasy prone
-spend about 1/2 waking life daydreaming -susceptible to hypnotism -para-identies -psychic experiences -out-of-body experiences -receive special messages
a social interaction in which one person (the hypnotist) suggests to another (the subject) that certain perceptions, feelings, thoughts, or behaviors will spontaneously occur
hypnosis induction is a set of activities to
1. minimize external distractions 2. encourage concentration on only suggested stimuli 3. encourage the belief that the subject is about to enter a special state of conciousness
features of hypnosis
1. enriched fantasy 2. cognitive positivity 3. hyper-selective attention 4. reduced reality theory
phenomena of hypnosis
1. Anesthesia 2. Hallucinations 3. Age-regression 4. Enhanced Memory 5. Posthypnotic Suggestion: a suggestion made during a hypnosis session to be carried out after the subject has been no longer hypnotized 6. Disinhibition: do things you normally wouldnt do
view 1 social-influence theory
treat hypnosis as role playing, subjects act as thy think hypnotized subjects are supposed to act (not faking, playing a role) evidence: can get hypnotic phenomenon without hypnosis. hypnotic-enhanced memories are often wrong- confidence in memory increases, not accuracy. not demonstrated MAJOR change in the brain state under hypnosis
view 2 state of conciousness
something hypnotized subjects subjects can do that cannot be done by non-hypnotized subjects, some brain changes do occur.
one of the major theories saying hypnosis is a change in conciousness Theory: during hypnosis our conciousness divides into 2 streams 1. part of conciousness aware of the hypnotic and the external world 2. Hidden Observer
a hypnotized subjects awareness of experiences that go unreported during hypnosis
a chemical substance that alters perceptions and moods
misconceptions of drugs
addictive drugs quickly corrupt, addictions cannot be overcome voluntarily, we can extend the concept of addiction to cover not just drug dependencies, nit a whole spectrum of repetitive, pleasure-seeking behaviors.
a diminishing effect with regular use of the same dose of a drug, requiring the user to take larger and larger doses before experiencing drug effect
a physiological need for a drug, marked by unpleasant withdrawal symptoms when the drug is discontinued.
a psychological need to use a drug, such as to relieve negative emotions
drugs such as alcohol and barbiturates that calm neural activity and slow body functions
drugs such as caffeine ecstasy amphetamines that excite neural activity and speed up body functions
disort perceptions and evoke sensory images in absence of sensory input such as LSD and marijuana
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