What is a testable hypothesis? Why is it critical to the scientific method?
Provides definitive evidence that proposed relationships are correct or that they are wrong
What are plate tectonics? What evidence was used to support the theory of plate tectonics (both original and modern)?
Plate tectonics is the theory that encompasses continental drift, sea floor spreading and related aspects of crustal movement.
Original: the rock sequences correlated, index fossils correlated, paleo climate correlated and geologic structure correlated Modern: 1950s sonar technology developed during WWII provided detailed knowledge of the structure of the ocean floor
What features are associated with a subduction zone? A hot spot?
Subduction:a deep ocean trench, volcanis arc on the overriding plate parallel to the trench, and a plane of earthquakes , shallow near the trench and descending beneath and beyond the volcanic arc
Hot spot: volcanoes
Why and how are the continents and the oceans fundamentally different?
The rocks that comprise the ocean floor are young and dense created by the process of sea floor spreading. The basement rocks that compromise the continents are old and less dense, so they literally float on a sea of magma underneath
What is the difference between a rock and a mineral?
A mineral is a solid formation that occurs naturally in the earth while a rock is a solid combination of more than one mineral formations which is also occurring naturally
What are the major classes of minerals?
Silicates: quartz, granite
Carbonates: Carbon, oxygen
Native elements: copper,silver,gold,diamond
What is the rock cycle and how does it relate to the three basic types of rock
The rock cycle is a model that describes the formation,breakdown and reformation of a rock as a result of sedimentary, igneous and metamorphic processes. Sedimentary cycle is a subcycle within the rock cycle See slide #8
What is weathering? What are the major weathering processes?
Chemical: salt action-crystals grow causing grain by grain disintegration .Oxidation-dissolves oxygen in water attacks metals. Hydrolysis-soaking until a chemical change occurs. Carbonic Acid- rain water is acidic, so dissolves carbonates
What is the erosional cycle?
Rocks become individual grains. consists of weathering, transportation and deposition
What is the mass wasting or mass movement? Give examples.
What is and aquifer? What are the three major classes of aquifers?
An aquifer is a pool of groundwater large enough to be an economic resource
Unconfined is most common
Confined is less common but can be very important
Karst is a special type that occurs in limestone rocks when a system of caves in connected and has water flowing through it
What is a Karst? A Karst system? Karst topography? How can Karst also be and aquifer?
Karst topography develops in thick limestone formations, usually in humid climates.
Why did the Dutch have an especially good knowledge of soils?
Who was Hans Jenny? What are his five major soil farming factors?
A soil scientist and expert on pedology. Helped systematize soil science Soil=function
What is Van Hoff's rule and how does it relate to soil processes?
States that the rate of biochemical action doubles with each 10 degrees celcius. Increase in temp chemical reactions of growth and decomposition occur much faster in hot, wet environments than cold, dry ones
What are the principal soil properties?
Horizons, color, ph, organic content, texture and structure
Why is texture an especially important property soils?
It controls water relations
What is the difference between pedocal and pedalfer? Where is each located?
Pedocal form in dry environments and have calcium. Pedalfers form in humid environments have iron and aluminium
What is a histosol, vertisol,aridisol,mollisol,spodosol,
Mollisol: grassland soils
Spodosol: Soils of needle leaf forests
Aridisol: Desert soils
Vertisol: shrinks and sweel moving building foundations. Dry soild shrinks, wet soil expands
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