EXAM 3 STUDY QUESTIONS Chapter 9: Motivation and Emotion Motivation 1. What is the difference between a need and drive? 2. What is homeostasis? 3. What is an incentive? 4. Describe the different types of motives (primary, stimulus, secondary) and be able to identify them in an example. 5. Arousal theory: What is the relationship between arousal and performance (Yerkes-Dodson law)? 6. What is the difference between the need for achievement and the need for power? How do high achievers differ from low achievers? (From Textbook) 7. Describe Abraham Maslow’s hierarchy of human needs.? What is the difference between basic needs and growth needs? How are needs for self-actualization expressed (from textbook)? How does Maslow’s hierarchy fare in the real world? 8. What is the difference between intrinsic and extrinsic motivation? How does extrinsic motivation affect a behavior that is intrinsically motivated? 9. What is the overjustification effect? Hunger 1. What role do the following structures play in our eating behavior: lateral hypothalamus (LH), ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH), & periventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus? What occurs when the LH and VMH are selectively stimulated (activated) or destroyed? 2. Eating Disorders a. What distinguishes anorexia nervosa from bulimia nervosa? What do these disorders have in common? b. Who is at greatest risk for developing these disorders? c. What are some potential causes of anorexia and bulimia? d. What treatments are available for people suffering from eating disorders? e. What are the different (genetic & psychological) causes of obesity? f. What is the relationship between leptin, the VMH, and eating behavior? Emotion 1. What are the different components of emotion? What controls the physiological responses of emotion? 2. Are emotional expressions universal? If so, which ones are and what evidence is there to support it? What are the implications of Ekman and Friesen’s study on emotional expressions? 3. What are display rules? 4. What is the facial feedback hypothesis? 5. What are the different theories of emotion? How do they explain the relationship between the different components of emotion (physical, psychological, and cognitive aspects)? (from lecture and textbook) Chapter 10: Personality How do psychologists use the term personality? How does that differ from the terms character and temperament? Explain the terms self-concept and self-esteem and how they affect behavior and explain how Eastern and Western cultures view self-esteem. (from textbook) Psychoanalytic Theory What are the three levels of awareness described by Freud? What are the three mental structures proposed by Freud? What are their roles and at what level of awareness do they operate? Define the following terms and describe how they relate to the above structures: libido, life instincts (Eros), death instinct (Thanatos), pleasure principle, reality principle, conscience, ego ideal. What are the different defense mechanisms described by Freud and why are they used? THINK OF EXAMPLES! What are the psychosexual stages proposed by Freud and how do they relate to personality? What are the ages and erogenous zones associated with each stage? What is a fixation and what type of personality would a fixation at the various stages produce? The Trait Approach 1. What are the different types of traits as identified by Allport? (from textbook) 2. What was Cattell’s approach to traits? (from textbook) 3. What were the differences between Allport’s and Cattell’s classification of traits? (from textbook) 4. What is the five-factor model (also known as the Big Five)? What are the five key dimensions outlined by this model? What does it mean to have high or low scores on these dimensions? Be sure you can identify a category based on a description of a person. Learning Theories of Personality (from textbook) 1. How do behaviorists view personality? 2. How do behaviorists account for personality development? 3. How do learning theorists view the structure of personality? 4. How do social learning theories explain personality? Humanistic Approach (from textbook) How does the humanistic approach differ from the other perspectives? What is a self-actualizer, as defined by Maslow? What are the characteristics of self-actualizers? What is Carl Rogers’ Self theory? How does he view the structure and dynamics of personality? What is the ideal self? What is Roger’s view of the normal functioning personality and how does that differ from his view of an incongruent person? Personality Assessment What are the different objective tests used in personality assessment? What are the different projective tests of personality? What are the pros and cons for using each of the above types of tests? Chapter 11: Health, Stress, and Coping Sources of Stress (from lecture and textbook) What are the four general forms of conflict? What is ambivalence? (EXAMPLES) 2. How do predictability and perceived control over the stressor affect how we view a stressor? What is learned helplessness? 3. What are the different sources of frustration (external/personal) and what are typical reactions to it? (from textbook) 4. Catastrophes & Stress: What is posttraumatic stress disorder? Studying Stress 1. What is Selye’s General Adaptation Syndrome and what occurs in each of the proposed stages? 2. What is the social readjustment rating scale as proposed by Holmes and his associates? What are LCUs? What is the relationship between LCUs and health? Does a high LCU score guarantee that a person will experience health problems? What other factors are involved? Personality and Health 1. What are psychosomatic illnesses and what causes them? How do psychosomatic illnesses differ from hypochondriasis? 2. How do optimism and pessimism influence health? 3. What are Type A and Type B behaviors and their relationship to health? What is a hardy personality? What are the differences between a hardy personality and a Type A personality? How do these differences affect reactions to stress? Coping with Stress How are the following strategies used to cope with stress? physical strategies (relaxation, meditation, massage, exercise) problem-oriented strategies (emotion-focused & problem-focused coping) cognitive strategies (reappraising the problem, social comparisons, sense of humor) social strategies (social support, helping others) How effective are each of these techniques?