Chapter 8 Conditional relation—a relation in which the significance of one stimulus or event depends on the status of another stimulus. Configural-cue approach—an approach to the analysis of stimulus control which assumes that organisms respond to a compound stimulus as an integral whole (compare with stimulus elemental approach) Discriminative stimulus—a stimulus that controls the performance of instrumental behavior because it signals the availability (or nonavailability) of reinforcement. Excitatory generalization gradient—a gradient of responding that is observed wen organisms are tested with the S+ from a discrimination procedure and with stimuli that increasingly differ from the S+. Typically the highest level of responding occurs to stimuli similar to the S+; progressively less responding occurs to stimuli that increasingly differ from the S+. Thus, the gradient has an inverted U shape. Facilitation—a procedure in which one cue designates when another cue will be reinforced. Also called occasion setting. Inhibitory generalization gradient—a gradient of responding observed when organisms are tested with the S- from a discrimination procedure and with stimuli that increasingly differ from the S-. The lowest level of responding occurs to stimuli similar to the S-; progressively more responding occurs to stimuli that increasingly differ from S-. Thus, the gradient has a U shape. Intradimensional discrimination- a discrimination between stimuli that differ only in terms of the value of on stimulus feature, such as color, brightness, or pitch. Modulator—a stimulus that signals the relation between two other events. The nature of binary relation may be determined by a third event, called a modulator. Multiple schedule of reinforcement—a procedure in which different reinforcement schedules are in effect in the presence of different stimuli presented in succession. Generally, each stimulus comes to evoke a pattern of responding that corresponds to whatever reinforcement schedule is in effect during that stimulus. Occasion setting—same as facilitation. Overshadowing—interference with the conditioning of a stimulus because of the simultaneous presence of another stimulus that is easier to condition. Peak-shift effect—displacement of the highest rate of responding in a stimulus generalization gradient away from the S+ in a direction opposite the S-. Stimulus discrimination—differential responding in the presence of two or more stimuli. Stimulus discrimination procedure—(in classical conditioning) A classical conditioning procedure in which one stimulus (the CS+ is paired with the unconditioned stimulus on other trials and another stimulus (the CS-) is presented without the unconditioned stimulus on other trials. As a result of this procedure the CS+ comes to elicit a conditioned response and the CS- comes to inhibit this response. Stimulus discrimination procedure (in instrumental conditioning)—a procedure in which reinforcement for responding is available whenever one stimulus (the S+, or SD) is present and not available whenever another stimulus (the S-, pr SΔ) is present. Stimulus-element approach—an approach to the analysis of control by compound stimuli which assumes that participants respond to a compound stimulus in terms of the stimulus elements that make up the compound. (compare with configiral-cue). Stimulus equivalence—responding to physically distinct stimuli as if they were the same because of common prior experiences with the stimuli. Stimulus generalization—responding to test stimuli that are different from the cues that were present during training. Stimulus generalization gradient—a gradient responding that is observed if participants are tested with stimuli that increasingly differ from the stimulus that was present during training. (see also excitatory generalization gradient and inhibitory generalization gradient. Chapter 9 Behavioral momentum—the susceptibility of responding to disruption by manipulations such as pre-session feeding, delivery of free food, or a change in the schedule of reinforcement. Consolidation—the establishment of memory in relatively permanent form so that it is available for retrieval a long time after original acquisition. Continuous reinforcement—a schedule of reinforcement in which ever occurrence of the instrumental response produces the reinforced. Abbreviated CRF Discrimination hypothesis—an explanation of the partial reinforcement extinction effect according to which extinction is slower after partial reinforcement that continuous reinforcement because the onset of extinction is more difficult to detect following partial reinforcement. Extinction—(in classical conditioning) reduction of a learned response that occurs because the conditioned stimulus is no longer paired with the unconditioned stimulus. Also the procedure of repeatedly presenting a conditioned stimulus without the unconditioned stimulus. Extinction—(in instrumental conditioning) reduction of the instrumental response that occurs because the response is no longer followed by the reinforced. Also the procedure of no longer reinforcing the instrumental response. Forgetting—a reduction of a learned response that occurs because of the passage of time, not because of particular experiences. Frustration—an aversive emotional reaction that results from the unexpected absence of reinforcement. Frustration theory—a theory of the partial reinforcement extinction effect, according to which extinction is retarded after partial reinforcement because the instrumental response becomes conditioned to the anticipation of frustrative non-reward. Intermittent reinforcement—a schedule of reinforcement in which only some of the occurrences of the instrumental response are reinforced. The instrumental response is reinforced occasionally, or intermittently. Also called partial reinforcement. Overtraining extinction effect—less persistence of instrumental behavior in extinction following extensive training with reinforcement (overtraining) than following only moderate levels of reinforcement training. The effect is most prominent with continuous reinforcement. Magnitude reinforcement extinction effect (PREE)—the term used to describe greater persistence in instrumental responding in extinction after partial (or intermittent) reinforcement training than after continuous reinforcement training. Reinstatement—recovery of excitatory responding to an extinguished stimulus produced by exposure to the unconditioned stimulus. Renewal—recovery of excitatory responding to an extinguished stimulus produced by a shift away from the contextual cues that were present during extinction. Sequential theory—a theory of the partial reinforcement extinction effect according to which extinction is retarded after partial reinforcement because the instrumental response becomes conditioned to the memory of nonreward. Chapter 10 Acquired-drive—a source of motivation for instrumental behavior caused by the presentation of a stimulus that was previously conditioned with a primary, or unconditioned, reinforcer. Avoidance—an instrumental conditioning procedure in which the participant’s behavior prevents the delivery of an aversive stimulus. Avoidance trial—a trial in a discriminated avoidance procedure in which an avoidance response is made and prevents the delivery of the aversive stimulus. Discriminated avoidance—an avoidance conditioning procedure in which occurrences of the aversive stimulus are signaled by a conditioned stimulus. Responding during the conditioned stimulus terminated the CS and prevents the delivery of the aversive unconditioned stimulus. Also called signaled avoidance. Discriminative punishment—a procedure in which responding is punished in the presence of a particular stimulus and not punished in the absence of that stimulus. Escape trial—a trial during discriminated avoidance training in which the required avoidance response is not made and the aversive unconditioned stimulus is presented. Performance of the instrumental response during the aversive stimulus results in termination of the aversive stimulus. Thus, the organism is able to escape from the aversive stimulus. Escape from fear (EFF) procedure—situation in which subjects can learn an instrumental response to escape from or terminate a stimulus that elicits fear. Escape from fear provides a copying mechanism for individuals suffering from excessive fear. Flooding—a procedure for extinguishing avoidance behavior in which the conditioned stimulus is presented while the participant is prevented from making the avoidance response. Free-operant avoidance—same as nondiscriminated avoidance. Nondiscriminated avoidance—an avoidance conditioning procedure in which occurrences of the aversive stimulus are not signaled by an external stimulus. In the absence of avoidance responding, the aversive stimulus is presented periodically, as set by the S-S interval. Each occurrence of the avoidance response creates ( or resets) a period of safety determined by the S-R interval during which the aversive stimulus is not presented. Also called free-operant avoidance; originally called Sidman avoidance. Overcorrection—a procedure for discouraging behavior in which the participant is not only required to correct or rectify a mistake but is also required to go beyond that by, for example, extensively practicing the correct response alternative. Predatory imminence—the perceived likelihood of being attacked by a predator. Different species typical defense responses occur in the face of different degrees of predatory imminence. Punishment—an instrumental conditioning procedure in which there is a positive contingency between the instrumental response and an aversive stimulus. If the participant performs the instrumental response, it receives the aversive stimulus; of the participant does not perform the instrumental response, it does not receive the aversive stimulus. R-S interval—the interval between the occurrence of an avoidance response and the next scheduled presentation of the aversive stimulus in a nondiscriminated avoidance procedure. Thus the R-S interval sets the duration of safety created by each avoidance response in a nondiscriminated avoidance procedure. Response prevention—blocking the opportunity to make the avoidance response so that the subject is exposed to a fear stimulus without being able to escape from it. Usually used in connection with flooding. Safety signal—a stimulus that signals the absence of an aversive event. Shock-frequency reduction—a hypothesis according to which reduction in the frequency of shock serves to reinforced avoidance behavior. Shuttle avoidance—a type of avoidance conditioning procedure in which the required instrumental response consists of real going back and forth (shuttling) between two sides of an experimental apparatus. Signaled avoidance—same as discriminated avoidance/ Species-species defense reactions—species typical responses animals perform in an aversive situation. The responses may involved freezing, fleeing or fighting. S-S interval—the interval between successive presentations of the aversive stimulus in a nondiscriminated avoidance procedure when the avoidance response is not performed. Time out—a period during which the opportunity to obtain positive reinforcement is removed, This may involve removal of the participant from the situation where reinforcers may be obtained. Two-process theory of avoidance—a theory originally developed to explain discriminated avoidance learning that presumes that operation of two mechanisms; classical conditioning of fear to the warning signal or CS, and instrumental reinforcement of the avoidance response through termination f the warning signal and consequent fear reduction.