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1. Public opinion is highly influenced by self-interest. Discuss in detail these concepts.
i. Public opinion is the collective expression of opinion of many individuals bound into a group by common aims, aspirations, needs, and ideals.
ii. People who are interested in or who have a vested or self-interest of an issue—or who can be affected by the outcome of the issue—form public opinion on that particular item.
iii. Psychologically, opinion basically is determined by self-interest. Events, words, or other stimuli affect opinion only insofar as their relationship to self-interest or a general concern is apparent.
iv. Opinion does not remain aroused for a long period of time unless people feel their self-interest is acutely involved or unless opinion—aroused by words—is sustained by events.Once self-interest is involved, opinion is not easily changed.
Public opinion is highly influenced by events. Discuss in detail these concepts.
i. Opinion is highly sensitive to events that have an impact on the public at large or a particular segment of the public.
ii. By and large, public opinion does not anticipate events. It only reacts to them.
iii. Events trigger formation of public opinion. Unless people are aware of an issue, they are not likely to be concerned or have an opinion about it. Awareness and discussion lead to crystallizing of opinions and often a consensus among the public.Events of unusual magnitude are likely to swing public opinion temporarily from one extreme to the other. Opinion does not stabilize until the implication of the event is seen with some perspective.
1. What is the importance of opinion leaders in the formation of public opinion?
a. They serve as catalysts.
b. People seldom make a decision on their own but are influenced by their friends, parents, educators, supervisors, church leaders, physicians, public officials, movie stars or singers, and the media in general. Public relations professionals attempt to influence these leaders just as they seek to influence the public at large.
c. (Opinion leaders: formal – title, position; informal – knowledgeable Beyoncé, Rush Limbaugh)
a. Media, through the selection of stories and headlines, tell the public what to think about, although not necessarily what to think.—there is danger in this and overt efforts to influence, they help form opinion with no background information)
How do you monitor public opinion?
Letters and telephone calls,
Polling/sampling,Ex. California Med. Fruit fly problem
1. Name three objectives of persuasion in public relations work. What objective is the most difficult to accomplish?
a. Change or neutralize hostile opinions- most difficult
b. Crystallize latent opinions and positive attitudes-message channeling
c. Conserve favorable opinions—reinforcement
d. The most difficult persuasive task is to turn hostile opinions into favorable ones, because people have already made their minds up.
1. Name the 8 factors involved in persuasive communication.
a. Audience analysis
i. Knowledge of audience characteristics such as beliefs, attitudes, concerns, and lifestyles is an essential part of persuasion.
b. Source credibility
i. A message is more believable to the intended audience if the source has credibility.
c. Appeal to self-interest
i. Publics become more involved in issues or pay attention to messages that appeal to their psychological or economic needs.
d. Clarity of message
i. Messages are direct, simply expressed, and contain only one primary idea.
e. Timing and context
i. A message is more persuasive if environmental factors support the message or if the message is received within the context of other messages and situations with which the individual is familiar.
f. Audience participation
i. A change in attitude is enhanced by audience involvement and participation
g. Suggestions for action
i. People endorse ideas only if the sponsor proposes an action
h. Content and structure of messages
i. A number of techniques can be used to make a message more persuasive
1. What are three factors involved in source credibility?
i. Does the audience perceive the person as an expert on the subject?
i. Does the person come across as believing what he or she is saying?
c. CharismaIs the individual attractive, self-assured, and articulate, projecting an image of competence and leadership
1. What are the pros and cons of using celebrities for product endorsements?
i. They call attention the product or service
ii. They associate their popularity with the product
i. The increasing number of celebrity endorsements, people cannot even remember who endorses what
ii. When endorser’s actions undercut the product or service
iii. When a celebrity decides to speak out on controversial public issues or even endorses public candidates
c. All in all, it all depends on which audience you are trying to reach.
1. Why is audience involvement and participation important in persuasion?
a. It is ways of helping people actualize their beliefs. Not only does it give people a sense of belonging, but also the act of participation reinforces their beliefs.
1. What 7 techniques can be used to write persuasive messages?
i. Everyone likes a good story—get the audience’s attention
i. People are impressed by statistics
c. Surveys and Polls
i. Use of the results of surveys and polls to show that they are first in “customer satisfaction”, etc.
i. A statement of opinion can be more persuasive if some examples are given
i. These are usually statements by a person who is a satisfied customer
i. Given by celebrities who are paid to say nice things about the organization, product, or service
g. Emotional Appeals
i. Appeals to protect animals, for example. Something that rises emotions.
1. Name 5 of the ethical responsibilities of a person who uses persuasion techniques.
a. Do not use false, fabricated, misrepresented, distorted, or irrelevant evidence to support arguments or claims.
b. Do not intentionally use specious, unsupported, or illogical reasoning.
c. Do not pretend certainty when tentativeness and degrees of probability are more accurate.
d. Do not advocate something in which you do not believe yourself.
e. Do not represent yourself as an informed or as an “expert” on a subject when you are not.
1. Propaganda Devices
a. Is it initially misleading?
b. Plain folks-“I’m just like you”
c. Testimonials-I had this medical problem and wen to certain place and they were great
d. Bandwagon approach- get on it or be left behind
e. Car stacking- building an overwhelming case on one side and a lacking case on the other
f. Transfer- similar to testimonial
g. Glittering generalities- President Obama with flag in the back ground/baseball hotdogs and chevy
h. Name calling- see a lot in polictal races
i. NOT ALL NEGATIVE- JUST TRYING TO PRESUDE SOMEONE TO DO SOMETHING.
Support for single issues
Emphasis on personality
Distrust of authority
1. Public Relations practitioners are cautioned not to think of audiences as monolithic, but very diverse. Why?
Because the audience is the opposite of monolithic: it is a complex intermingling of groups with diverse cultural, ethnic, religious, and economic attributes that public relations professionals must understand and deal with every day. Diversity is the most significant aspect of the mass audience in the United States.
Differences in geography, history, economics
Ethnicity generational differences, socioeconomic status
Public relations campaigns are designed to reach specific audiences that are defined by age, gender, income, and lifestyle. Technology compiles related valuable information about target audiences. Through things like geographic and social statistics, data on automobile registrations, voter registrations, sales figures, mailing lists, and church and organization membership can be merged into computer databases.
Computers used for research
Census Bureau stats
1. What are some guidelines for developing a communications campaign for
· Organize a team with an inherent understanding of the customs and values of the various demographic groups you are trying to reach
· Understand that consumers of diverse cultural backgrounds respond better to messages that are culturally relevant
· Remember that consumers of diverse cultural backgrounds are extremely loyal and once your products and services become part of their lives, there is a very good chance you will keep them
· Use the primary language of the audience. A large portion of your target audience prefers to communicate in their primary language, even if they also have strong English skills
· Use spokespersons that represent the audience. The spokesperson must be able to be a good communicator and be sensitive to the issues that are important to the audience
The Hispanic-Latino population is the largest and fastest-growing demographic group in the U.S.-->About 46 million=1 in 6 residents
14.5%/ 25% by 2050
Buying power $863 billion
6. What are some of the cultural values of such groups as Hispanics, African
Americans, and Asian Americans?
They all share a deep family network with a strong mother or father figure, music, food, religion, and strong bonds between friends and family. Also multicultural consumers tend to be more loyal to brands that make an attempt to reach them in ways that are culturally relevant.
6. Describe some of the ethnic media that reach a Hispanic audience.
Radio is an especially important way to reach this ethnic group (Hispanic person listens to the radio 26-30 hrs. a week). Television also has a large, rapidly expanding Hispanic audience. Hispanic audiences, particularly the younger generation, have also turned to online sources.
Radio use 13% higher than general population
6. What are some characteristics of millennials, also called Generation Y?
Born after 1980-they entered the workforce at the start of the 21st century.
· They will spend equal time interacting with friends online and in person
· Initial interaction online will precede most dating and marriages
· They will spend more time online that in interaction with parents by tenfold
· They will be more reserved in social skills
· They will be savvy and skeptical about online identities such as chat participants
· They will not tolerate print forms, slow application processes, or archaic systems
· Parents still rule when it comes to advice about careers and drugs, and even for product decisions
· Trust in information is derived from relationships
· The top five sources of advice are parents, doctors, clergy, friends, and teachers
· As avid and skilled Internet users, millennials remain savvy about unfiltered and medium for them
· Publicity for products and issues will include millennials, whether messages are directed at them or at those to whom they look for advice.
6. What is the baby boomer generation, and what are some of this group’s characteristics?
Born between 1946 and 1964. They include 78 million people, aka 24%of the U.S. population. The baby boomers, unlike their parents, grew up in an age of prosperity and continue to have few qualms about spending on consumer goods instead of saving for retirement, although the economic recession of ’09 changed many of their spending habits. Many corporations and non-profit groups have taken a keen interest in reaching this generation b/c of their wealth in numbers. Since these baby boomers are almost considered seniors, they are naturally concerned about health care, insurance, retirement planning, personal investing, and other issues. Finally, as a result of growing up in the 60s and 70s, baby boomers are a “rather active, socially conscious bunch.”
65 years and older or according to the AARP it’s everyone over the age of 50. These older citizens form an important opinion group and a consumer market with special interests.
· With the perspective of long experience, they often are less easily convinced than young adults, demand value in the things they buy, and pay little attention to fads
· They vote in greater numbers than their juniors and are more intense readers of newspapers and magazines. Retirees also watch television heavily
· They form an excellent source of volunteers for social, health, and cultural organizations because they have time and often are looking for something to do
· They are extremely health-conscious, out of self-interest, and want to know about medical developments
The elderly are better off financially than stereotypes suggest. Also they are poor customers for household goods, they eat out frequently and do much gift buying. They travel frequently. Seniors spend 30% more time watching TV and 25% more time reading a daily newspaper than the average U.S. adult
1. How can a public relations person take precautions to avoid libel suits?
· Opinion statements be accompanied by the facts on which the opinions are based.
· Statements of opinion be clearly labeled as such
· The context of the language surrounding the expression of opinion be reviewed for possible legal implications
· Be accurate
· Be careful about unflattering comments
· Defamation: false statements that damages someone’s reputation
· Libel- written/ Slander- spoken
1. What is the concept of fair comment and criticism? Are there any limitations to it?
When companies and individuals voluntarily display their wares to the public for sale and consumption, they have no real recourse against criticism done with honest purpose and lack of malicious intent.
· Anyone offering goods
· Issue of public concerns
· Be careful
· Corporate reputation can be damaged but it is difficult to prove
· Keep up with the changing law!
1. What precautions should a public relations person take to avoid invasion of privacy suits?
· Employee communication
· Photo releases
· Product publicity and advertising
· Media inquires about employees
· Focus on organizations
· Be careful about personals
· Double check
· Will this embarrass?
· Employees initial drafts
· No second hand info
1. If an organization wants to use the photo comments of an employee or a customer in an ad or promotion piece, what precautions should be taken?
1. When the media call about employee, what kinds of information should the public relations person provide?
· Name, title, dates of beginning and ending
· No other information/arrange a meeting
1. What basic guidelines of copyright law should public relations professionals know about? What is copyright and what does it protect. What does the law presume regarding automatic copyright? How long does copyright last?
· What organizational materials should be copyrighted?
· How to utilize the copyrighted material of others correctly?
· Copyright is the protection of a creative work from unauthorized use
· Protects literary, musical, dramatic, pictorial, graphic, sculptural
· Does not protect ideas
· Law presumes that material is copyrighted from the moment it is created
· Life of the author plus 70 years
· Organization- 95 years
· Full legal protection requires registration
· Excerpts: research, teaching, fair comment
· Infringement is reprinting or reproducing the entire work without permission
· Use deprives sales
· Use for profit
1. What rights do freelance photographers and writers have regarding ownership of their works?
· Photos retain ownership
· Writers must negotiate
· Word, symbol, or slogan
· Proper use
· Failure to capitalize can cause jeopardyMonitor media use/ educate employees
1. What is “misappropriation of personality”?
· Sound alikes and look alikes
· Must get permission and pay a licensing fee
· Federal Trade Commission
-Jurisdiction over deceptive or misleading advertising or release
Statements hard to prove
Those who endorse should use
Testimonials in writing
The government doesn’t endorse
Describe tests and surveys/ prize and awards
A “new” product
Full information must be given on anything that affects price
Timely disclosure of major developments
Insider trading illegal
12. If an organization is sponsoring an open house or a promotional event, what legal aspects should be considered?
· Well- defined tour
· Restrooms and parking
· Trained guides
· Info booth
· Contingency plan for accidents
Yes, they are company property
PR must realize legal ramification
Legal must realize importance of PR
Frequent communication and meetings
Equal input to top management
1. Give some figures or statistics verifying that the industries of entertainment, sports, and tourism are important segments of the American economy.
· Attendance at movies in 2009 generated about $10 billion in revenues for the film industry
· The Academy Awards continues to draw a TV audience of 30 million every year
· The Super Bowl had a TV audience of 116 million in 2010
· Fans, even in the 2009 recession, spent 4.4 billion to attend concerts in North America
· Sales of albums generated almost $400 million in 2009
· In the 2008 racing season, 400 companies put up more than $1.5 billion to sponsor races, cars, and drivers. NASCAR alone had revenues of $3 billion that year
· Corporate sponsors of the Beijing Olympics paid almost $1 billion in sponsorship fees. Broadcasters paid $1.7 billion to televise the games
· The hotel industry in the United States is a $135 billion business
· Cruise lines are a $40 billion industry and generate more than 350,000 jobs
· 58 million overseas visitors came to the US in 2008
1. What constitutes a celebrity today in American society? What are the roles of publicists and the media in creating celebrities?
A person well known in one or a wide variety of fields such as science, politics, or entertainment. People want to know everything about celebrities and the media and publicists provide this information to the public.
· Self- glorificationThe publicist promotes image and recognition
1. When pop star Michael Jackson died, the media devoted blanket coverage of his death and memorial service. Do you think the coverage was excessive? Why or why not?
I don’t believe the coverage was excessive, Michael Jackson was a huge celebrity and the public wanted to know every detail of his death so that’s what the media did. The three- hour memorial service for Jackson at Staples Center in Los Angeles confirmed the media’s assessment that there was tremendous public interest in the story. There was a 31 million-television audience and almost a 8 million online viewing audience. Later that day, 20 million watched the prime- time specials offered by the major TV networks
· It eclipsed all other major stories
· 60% of total news coverage
1. Give some reasons why the public is fascinated with the personal lives of celebrities or develops strong attachments to sports teams.
· Celebrities are viewed as glamorous figures that live in a special world of privilege and wealth and the public dreams to be like them
· The public looks up to athletes in dreams of becoming as successful, they also yearn for heroes
· Members of the public develop a vicarious sense of belonging that creates support for athletic teams.
· Desire for entertainment
1. Describe the work of an entertainment publicist.
Their primary job is to generate publicity for a film, concert, or an individual star, they are often called upon to do “damage control” when a celebrity runs afoul of the law or makes an ill-considered statement.
· Getting publicity in the media
· Minimizing misbehavior
· Handling the misquote
· Reporters resent this
· Replay the tape
· Acknowledge a slip up
· Ethics: Tell the truth/ Suggest a low profile
· Prepare a statement
5. Briefly discuss the Tiger Woods sec scandal. PR professionals criticized him for failing to do what?
Tiger cheated on his wife Elin with multiple women, and she found out. She broke Tiger’s car window in a marital dispute. His initial strategy was to lie low, but the media’s fascination with the situation kept them going. Experts faulted Tiger’s team for stonewalling the media and not taking control of the situation within the first 24 hours. They said that this scandal will go down “in PR history as a classic example of a crisis made worse by poor communications”.
9. What is the process for developing a publicity campaign for a personality,
discuss all four steps.
Interview the Client: the client should answer a detailed personal questionnaire. The practitioner should be a dogger, probing interviewer, digging for interesting and possibly newsworthy facts about the person’s life, activities, and beliefs.
Prepare a Biography: should be limited to four typed pages, perhaps fewer. News and feature angles should be placed near the top of the “bio”, as it is termed, so an editor or producer can find them quickly.
Plan a Marketing Strategy: Practitioner should determine precisely what is to be marketed. Is the purpose only to increase public awareness of the individual, or is it to publicize the client’s product such as a new television series, motion picture, or book. Then the practitioner should decide which audiences are the most important to reach.Conduct the Campaign: The best course is to schedule the client on multiple media simultaneously. Radio and television appearances create public awareness and often make newspaper feature stories easier to obtain
9. What do sports publicists do? List all 10.
· Prepare media kits
· Write bios on players
· Compile stacks of statistics
· Wine and dine sports reporters
· Maintain the press box
· Arrange media interviews
· Book payer appearances on television and radio sports shows
· Handle crisis when players run afoul of the law
· Write a team blog
· Provide constant updates for fans on Facebook and followers on Twitter
9. What are the three phases of promoting a tourism destination?
1. Stimulating the public’s desire to visit a place
2. Arranging for the travelers to reach it
3. Making certain that visitors are comfortable, well treated, and entertained when they get there
. Describe target audiences at which travel PR specialists aim their efforts.
Specialists will identify with target audiences and then create special appeals and trips for them. Packaging is a key word in travel public relations. A package usually consists of a prepaid arrangement for transportation, housing, most meals, and entertainment, with a professional escort to handle details. The largest special travel audience of all is older citizens. Retired persons have time to travel and many have ample money to do so. Travel promoters design trips with them in mind, including such niceties as paring compatible windows to share cabins and arranging trips ashore that require little walking.
1. What are the basic purposes and functions of government relations?
Ideally, the government is public service; no one makes private profit directly from the operation of governments, and governments are noncommercial. However, in order for federal, state, and local governments to function efficiently, each branch needs to communicate effectively with its constituents. From election campaigns to military recruitment to floating a bond issue, a common thread runs through governmental public relations: the circulation of information. Skilled professionals at every level ensure that information is disseminated clearly, efficiently, and to the widest number of people.
1. What is the difference between someone working in corporate public affairs (government relations) and a lobbyist?
Most campaigns to influence impending legislation have multiple levels. One level is informing and convincing the public about the correctness of an organization’s viewpoint (public affairs). On the other level, lobbyists are aimed at the defeat, passage, or amendment of legislation and regulatory agency policies.
One key provision was an expanded definition of who is considered to be a “lobbyist.” (’95 law: “someone hired to influence lawmakers, government officials or their aides, and who spends at least 20% of his/her time representing any client in a six-month period”) Another key provision requires lobbyists to register with Congress and disclose their clients, the issue areas in which lobbying is being done, and roughly how much is being paid for it. Violators face civil fines of up to $50,000. One area exempted from the lobby reform bill is financial disclosures for so-called grassroots lobbying.
4. Describe the facets of grassroots lobbying.
There are virtually no rules or regulations. The tools for this kind of lobbying are advocacy advertising, toll-free phone lines, bulk faxing, websites, and computerized direct mail aimed at generating phone calls and letters from the public to Congress, the White House, and governmental regulatory agencies. It also involves coalition building; to get individuals and groups with no financial interest in the issue to speak on the sponsor’s behalf. The premise is that letters and phone calls from private citizens are more influential than arguments from vested interests.
White Houseà the apex of public relations efforts occur here. All Presidents have taken advantage of the intense media interest to implement P.R. strategies to improve popularity, generate support for programs, and explain embarrassing policy decisions. Examples: Speeches, staged events, talk shows press conferences, campaign rallies.
Congressà House and Senate are huge disseminators of information using things like news releases, newsletters, recordings, brochures, taped radio interviews, e-mails, electronic newsletters, and videos.
Federal Agenciesà answer press and public inquiries, write newsletters, work on newsletters, prepare speeches for top officials, oversee the production of brochures, and plan special events.
State Governmentsà develop campaigns to encourage tourism, publicizing quality of life issues, provides an array of public relations services, public information and education campaigns, health and safety campaigns, and advertising and public relations campaigns.
Local Governmentsà information flow occurs in many ways through government services. EX: city council holds neighborhood meetings; the airport commission sets up an exhibit showing the growth needs of the airport; the recreation department promotes summer swimming lessons; the city’s human rights commission sponsors a festival promoting multiculturalism
4. Describe the criticisms aimed at President Obama and his response during the BP gulf disaster.
· Slow to respond in any serious and concerted manner after the blowout and spread of oil
· Unemotional tone when discussing the environmental disaster and the economic impact
· No direct talks with BP, not even by telephone, for seven weeks after the spill began
· Expressed that there was no real point in communicating with BP
· Stereotyping by Obama of the oil industry and business executives as always telling the public what it wants to hear
· Calling for a drilling moratorium in the Gulf, which would compound job loss and economic catastrophe
· Mandating a freeze by BP of all dividend payments to shareholders, which earned immediate backlash from British pundits and officials looking out for the interests of British pensioners counting on BP payments.
4. Describe the criticisms aimed at President Obama and his response during the BP gulf disaster.
· More frequent, more visible visits to the Gulf, with ample photo opportunities of the President talking with local residents and examining oil pollution
· One such visit was punctuated by Obama’s pointed effort to become more emotional and more responsive concerning the catastrophe by saying he needed to go on-scene so that he would know “whose ass to kick”
· The White House developed arguments for the moratorium on drilling in U.S. waters that initially seemed to be a no-brainer, until many Louisiana leaders expressed bitterness that this would only make matters worse in the region where fishing and tourism were already decimated.
· Obama acknowledged that the biggest economic driver in the region, the oil industry, would be crippled by a six-month stoppage and urged the review team to move expeditiously to prevent drilling rigs shifting to other parts of the world and likely never returning to the Gulf.
· First formal speech from the White House after his first overnight stay in the Gulf region, which include a visit to three impacted states.
· Polished videogrophy of Obama’s visit to the Gulf by media professionals in the White House posted online
· Obama scheduled a high-profile meeting with top BP executives in the White House.
· Diplomatic overtures from the White House led to a call by British Prime Minister David Cameron for cooler heads to prevail regarding a freeze of BP dividends.
· The BP Chairman apologized to the American people during the visit to the White House and voluntarily pledged to freeze dividends to provide $20 billion in reparation funds to the Gulf.
The Department of Education paid the public relations firm Ketchum $1 million to produce and distribute video news releases that promoted the programs and evaluate media coverage. However, Ketchum was paying conservative commentator Armstrong Williams $240,000 to promote the NCLB Act in his TV and radio appearances. Many questioned what appeared to be an illegal promotion to gain a political advantage. The Government Accounting Office ruled that Ketchum had failed to openly acknowledge the government’s role in the production of the NCLB video news releases and that, as such, the VNRs were covert propaganda.
4. Discuss the advantages and the downside to using the Internet and social media in election campaigns.
Advantagesà Internet used for:
· Campaign fund-raising and building grassroots support in 2000 election
· In ’04 election, the Internet was used to build a grassroots network, motivate potential voters, and raise funds.
· Interact with constituents
· Obama used it to build support among college students, young professionals, and independents.
· Candidates surrender some measure of control over the message and discussion.
· Any gaffes are instantly amplified.
· Constant vigilance is needed to rebut gossip and misinformation
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