Set of beliefs, feelings, and behaviors associated with being male or female
The idea that gender is rooted in natural or biological differences between men and women
Sociologists argue that gender is learned
The shift after the normal work day in which men and women must care for their children and take care of their home
Hochschild notes that the “feminist revolution” has opened up many new opportunities for women
Hochschild found the interplay of the husband’s gender strategy and the wife’s gender strategy is what determined the apportionment of the second shift
A person’s beliefs about what is appropriate for men and women
The gender a person defines him or herself as
The belief that men and women should have equal roles in both the home and in the workforce
The belief that men and women should behave according to their traditional roles (i.e., women stay at home and care for the children while the men work).
The majority of Hochschild's couples belong to her third set, the “transitionals.” For them, the second shift is a contested zone.
The mom that can “do it all”
Many men disaffiliated themselves from household chores as a gender strategy for the second shift
Gender strategy that many men used in which they reduced their needs around the home to take the load off of their wives’ workload in order to avoid equally distributing the second shift
Some men made substitute offerings as a gender strategy in the second shift
The tendency for men and women to work in jobs held primarily by people of their own sex
Common measure of sex segregation, which measures the extent to which the sex composition of individual occupations matches the sex composition of the workforce as a whole
Belief that mothers suffer a penalty in the labor market
Motherhood is a “status characteristic”
Persons of high status are expected to perform more competently and are often seen as performing more competently, even when they don’t actually perform competently!
Correll asks 188 college students to evaluate job applicants
For a period of 18 months, Correll and her research assistants responded to Sunday job ads with a pair of fictitious resumes and cover letters of equal strength
Federal Housing Administration provided widespread mortgage guarantees to allow for widespread homeownership
Detroit Riot (1967)
Race riot that occurred in Detroit in 1967 that many sociologist believe started the downturn of the city from urban hey day to urban crisis
Sections of Detroit that most heavily resisted integration of the city
New Urban Poverty
Poverty due to unemployment and low labor force participation
Today’s ghettos are different than yesterday’s ghettos; there aren’t any jobs any more; people there aren’t working
Jobless ghetto is closely tied to largely structural changes in the American economy that have diminished the economic prospects of low-skilled workers
Shift of manufacturing from Rust Belt (Midwest) to Sunbelt (West coast) and shift of jobs from center-city to suburbs
The result of deindustrialization and the structural transformation of the US labor market
Wilson argues the economic changes have a major impact on the emergence of the modern ghetto
Suburbanization of Emp.
The movement of jobs and industries from the city-center to the suburbs surrounding the city.
Result of suburbanization of employment
The change from factory jobs to service jobs negatively affected the lower-class people in the city because they do not have the proper qualifications, such as a college degree, needed to work
Ghettos today experience high levels of social disorganization
The ghetto poor of today are socially isolated because they are socially disorganized
Name given in South Africa to the segregation of the inhabitants of European-descent from the non-Europeans
“New” immigrant ghettos (e.g., Polish, Jewish, Italian, and Czech immigrants) were also confined to ghettos.
Groups established by white people living in certain areas of a city that strongly opposed integration by blacks.
Another restrictive covenant used by whites to preserve the homogeneity of their neighborhoods
Index of Dissimilarity
This index ranges from 0 to 100, and it indicates the percentage of African Americans who would have to more in order to achieve a racial composition in each neighborhood that matches the racial composition of the overall metropolitan area
Index of Isolation
This index ranges between 0 and 100, and it indicates the percentage of African Americans living in the neighborhood of the average African American
Index of Clustering
This index ranges between 0 and 100, and it measures the degree to which black neighborhoods are lumped together in one large agglomeration, rather than being widely scattered
Index of Centralization
This index varies from -100 to 100, and it measures the degree to which blacks live close to the central business district of a metropolitan area
Index of Concentration
This index varies from -100 to 100, and it measures the relative amount of physical space occupied by a minority group
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