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middle of middle ages
Frankish warlord. His family had close ties to roman pope The pope was feeling scared. Pope was a major political figure. He sends word to Charlemagne, meet up, pope has crown. I crown you emperor. Beginning of Holy Roman Empire.
By crowning him, gains ally and pokes eyes of byzantine. Charlemagne gains legitimacy or devein authority, but very wealthy and very powerful anyways.
(ruled 527-565) theocracy. ( no separation of church and state)
Emperor was considered spiritual leader of church
Always a divide in church between east (inspired by classical/ philosophical) and west(skull splitter, more laid back) , cultural differences.
Underground burial sites used by early Christians
Around 200 we see Christians begin to bray dead here
60-90 miles of catacombs. Around 4,000,000 bodies
Knishes in walls in tunnels
Early Christian rituals of rights. Earliest communion, (bread wine)
Community coming together to share bread and wine.
Every small local set of Christian has own rituals. Not standardized.
Early Christians began to need churches:
The basilica, Latin cross plan ( one in which the horizontal intersects higher up) more popular in the west
Central plan, Greek cross plan (one in which the horizontal intersects in the middle) more popular in the east
one in which the horizontal intersects in the middle) more popular in the east
An illustrated book
Two most common material: parchment (animal skin paper) and vellum (animal skin paper that has been scrubbed, washed, etc.)Paint itself tempera paint
Archivolts- frames tympanum. Composed of individual voussoirs
Tympanum- above lintel, semi circular area
In middle the post is called a trumeau, supporting LINTAL.
Jambs- around door at bottom
composed of nave arcade (upside-down U on first level), above that we have the triforium gallery on the second row, clerestory is on third level.
Symmetry to design. Attempt at classical ideas of balance, harmony.Idea of 3 is mirrored in layout, Physical layout mirrored in decoration
Nave Elevation Parts
NAVE- running down the center of the church. Either side of the nave is called the AMBULATORY SPACES. To create that latten cross. The nave is crossed by the TRANSEPT. Where the transept and the nave cross is called the CROSSING. On the other side of the transept it is called the CHOIR. The alter is usually in the crossing in most mid-evil churches. The choir is the backstage, clergy. Small niches are a little tiny church within a church, chapels stuck on back. Pilgrimage church house reliques
Come in go into ambulatory, by pass nave and go around walk out without interrupting service.
Nave is crossed by transept
Crossing is located where the nave and the transept meet
Religious or spiritual journey. Ends with special location(tomb, relique, etc.) major rout went to Santiago de compostela. All along routes sprung up churches.
Responsible for a lot of Romanesque art, 1st true international art since fall of Roman Empire
Decedents of viking raiders. Carved out own personal territory
Peter Striking the Rock
Catacombs of Commodilla
Late 4th century
early art has an amateur look to it. It is done by other Christians, if they had any training or not. More important things were being done by christens, then artists.
Painting was probably meant to be both. Showing st, peter and Moses.
One thing you see with Christ Is story of Jonah
Early Christian art tend to try to connect to try to connect with them.
Toga- formal wear for romans. Only wear it on important occasians. Fact that romans wondering around in these wasn’t right. Early Christian artists stole ideas to depict Jesus.
Purple was imperial color
Whenever they had an emperor the son was said to have been more in the purple.
Purple scarf- used to symbolize
New one sits on top of it.
Allowed for church to serve various functions. Built on site of St. peter. Layed out in long central sections (nave)
3-4000 people at once
They can shut the gate of this building
When this is being built- great up heval. Keeping exterior out. Limit access.Served as a worship space. Fortified retreat
Hagia Sophia, Anthemius of Tralles & Isidorus of Miletus, 532-537
They perfered brick
180 ft wde/ high
It’s massive and a special type of dome- dome on pendentives
Allows you to put dome on square space!
Could start getting grid of walls
Don’t loose technical engineering know how
Mosaic of the Virgin Mary and Christ Child
Gold background. (luxurious, expensive, shiny, makes it look unreal)
No one smiles. Plan face.
was that churches occupied boundary between spiritual world and things. Transitional zone.
Meant to have other world kind of vibe to them.
Emperor Justinian and His Attendants, Mosaic, Ravenna, c. 547
Political propaganda. People don’t want to be part of empire
He is holding platter of which bread for communion is brought out.
He also has army there too.
Virgin and Child with Saints and Angels, icon
Encaustic on wood
Encaustic on wood, 6th century
Not very many left
Due to iconoclasm (icon smashing)
Debates whether icons should be legal.
Stoic, static, sever looking people.
Purse Cover, from the Sutton Hoo burial ship, c. 615-625, Cloisonné plaques of gold, garnet and enamel
CLOISONNE( a type of metal work, create tiny compartments into which you put jewels and colored stone, etc. barbarians were really well known and appreciated for metal work even though seen as uncivilized)
Highly stylized lid for a money pouch
Very luxurious, high quality item
Part of a burial ship. If you owned a ship, you were a titan of industry.
Not sure what images mean, guess? Wolfed flanking human- warning to purse snatchers?
No attempt at naturalism, not representational at times.
Emphasis on decoration
Classical culture not lost, morphed and changed in interesting ways
England, c. 698
Groups of monks
Removed themselves from mainstream societies, spent time copying biblical text
Very very very expensive items.
A lot of times these people can’t actually read, they are just copying.
Fusion of Christian cross with pagan aesthetic
Bright rich colors
This is important trying to communicate this. Borrowing from precious metalwork
Pictures of the author with their symbols
(mark-lion, Luke- ox (because it opens with sacrifice of ox) , John-eagle(tied to traditional notion that wrote something else)
Often times you just have symbols
Chi Rho Iota Page from the Book of Kells, Late 8th or early 9th century,
Tempera on vellum
Woven together the Greek initials for Christ into complicated, irregularly shaped cluster
Mimic look of jewelry, metal work
Even if you can’t read the words themselves, you are contemplating on the word of god.
Plan, Palace Chapel of Charlemagne
Classical roman style bath built.
Abby Church at Corvey
Sponsored construction of churches.
Have monumental west work on front of it.
Signifier of imperial project.
Gatehouse at Lorsch
They would create this little house for if he wanted to visit. A safe haven for him to stop in.
Meant to remind you of Constantine roman arches.
People realized how far they had fallen
Page with Saint Matthew, from the Coronation Gospels, c. 800-810, Ink and tempera on vellum
Mad eby native artists, western, northern, Germanic artisits
Had some sort of contact by italio byzantine artists
Sense of what it would be like to receive the word of god try to scribble down every last little thing.
Through angels and scrolls they got messages
Page with Matthew the Evangelist, from the Ebbo Gospels, c. 816-840,
Ink and tempera on vellum
Began by William the conquerer
Abby church, part of monastic community, but also made to be pilgrimage church.
Pointy tops added during gothic period
Castle feel without tops
Known for bulky heavy look
Churches are gods fortress, engineering isn’t there, lack the skills to build it any other way
Portal, Moissac Abbey
Sculpture is secondary to architecture.
Meant to mimic the shape of the tremaeu (post).
Gives the monks a chance to get outside without having to leave monastery itself.
Trumeau Sculpture, Portal of Mossaic Abbey, 12th century
Gislebertus, The Last Judgement, Saint-Lazare, Autun, France, c. 1120-40
Signed by gislebertus, very recognizable style.
People that trained with him, signing in latin- indicating he is somewhat literate. Big name in Romanesque art scene. Very imitated.
Badges on bags on pilgrimage churches, to show you actually been there.
Meant to be violent and scary.
A lot of visual information to be readable, horror story.
Reinforce importance of Christian beliefs.
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